CBSE Solutions for Class 10 Political Science

Select CBSE Solutions for class 10 Subject & Chapters Wise :

Which country’s constitution’s key feature was to reduce the power of the central government and give powers to the regional government?

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Belgium

Belgium shifted from a unitary to a _______ form of government after changes of 1993.

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Federal

Name one country which has a unitary form of government.

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Sri Lanka

________ is a system of government where power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

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Federalism

_______ out of 193 countries in the world have federal political systems.

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25

Under ______ system either there is only one level of government or the subunits are subordinated to the central government.

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Unitary

Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its jurisdiction in specific matters of _______, _________ and _______.

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Legislation, administration, taxation

An ideal federal system has both aspects of ______ and ________.

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Mutual trust, agreement to live together

What are the two different types of a federation?

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Coming together and Holding together federations

________ is the area over which someone has legal authority.

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Jurisdiction

Name any three subjects of national importance which are included in the union list.

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Defence, Foreign Affairs, Banking

Name three subjects of local importance and are included in the state list.

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Commerce, Agriculture, Irrigation

Powers of subjects like computer software which came up after the constitution was made reside with the union government subjects known as ________.

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Residuary subjects

Name any states of India which enjoy special powers because of their particular social and historical circumstances.

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Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh

Which article provides special powers to states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland etc. because of their particular social and historical circumstances.

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Article 371

Name two union territories of India.

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Chandigarh, Lakshadweep

_______ plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures.

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Judiciary

__________ in Rajasthan is the place where India conducted its nuclear tests.

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Pokhran

Name two states which were created based on culture, ethnicity, or geography and not on a linguistic basis.

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Nagaland, Jharkhand

Besides Hindi, there are _______ languages recognized as scheduled languages by our constitution.

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21

Name the language which is spoken the most after Hindi.

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Bengali

All the panchayat samities and mandals in a district together constitute the ________.

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Zilla Parishad

The municipal chairperson is the head of the ________. While in a municipal corporation such an officer is known as ________.

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Municipality, Mayor

Who administers a district and what is the other name he is known as?

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Collector, District magistrate

After Independence and several princely states becoming a part of the country, the constitution declared India as a _______.

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Union of states

Explain the structure of the new Panchayati Raj institutions, both in rural and urban areas.

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Rural Local Government is known by the name of Panachayati Raj/ Democratic decentralization.

  • Each village or group of villages has a Gram Panchayat.
  • Panch, President or Sarpanch are directly elected by all the adult population of the village and is the decision-making body.
  • The Panchayat works under the supervision of Gram Sabha, with all the voters as its members.
  • The local structure goes up to the district level—a group of Gram Panchayats form a Panchayat Samiti or Block or Mandal.
  • All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals together constitute the Zilla Parishad which consists of elected members.
  • Lok Sabha members, Local MLAs and officers are also members of the Zilla Parishad.
  • Its Chairperson is the political head of the Parishad.

Urban areas local bodies.

  • Municipalities are set up in towns.
  • Big cities are constituted into Municipal Corporations.
  • Both are controlled by elected bodies consisting of people’s representatives.
  • Municipal chairperson is the political head of the Municipality.
    The head of Municipal Corporation is an officer called the Mayor.

What were the major steps taken to make decentralisation more effective?

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Major steps towards decentralisation taken in 1992 are:

  1. Now it is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to Local Government bodies.
  2. Seats are reserved in elected bodies for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes (OBCs).
  3. Atleast one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
  4. The State Election Commission was created to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.
  5. The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with Local Government bodies.

Describe in brief the language policy of India?

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  1. Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.
  2. The formation of linguistic states united the country and made administration easier.
  3. The leaders of our country adopted a very cautious attitude in spreading the use of Hindi. Hindi was identified as official language.
  4. The banning of use of English for official purposes in 1965 took a violent form in Tamil Nadu. The Central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.
  5. Promotion of Hindi is an official policy of the Government of India but it does not impose Hindi on states where people speak a different language.
  6. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognised as scheduled languages by the Constitution.
  7. This flexibility shown by Indian leaders helped our country avoid the situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.

Describe the three forms of power sharing among different organs of government in India. (2014)

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The Constitution declared India as a Union of States based on the principles of federalism. The Constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government, the Union or the Central Government representing Union of India and the State Governments. Later, a third tier was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities.

As in any federation, these different tiers enjoyed separate jurisdiction. The Constitution provided a three-fold distribution of legislative powers:

  1. Union List includes subjects of national importance, i.e., defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency.
  2. State List contains subjects of state and local importance, i.e., police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation.
  3. Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, i.e., education, forests, trade unions, marriages, adoption and succession.
    In case of dispute, law made by the Union Government shall prevail.
  4. Residuary—Subjects which do not fall in any of the three lists, i.e., computer software, etc. Union Government has the power to legislate such subjects.
    • As India is an example of ‘holding together’ federation, all states in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Some states enjoy special status such as Jammu & Kashmir. There are some states too small to become independent like the Union Territories of Chandigarh and Lakshadweep.
    • This sharing of power between the Union Government and State Governments is basic to the structure of the Constitution. Any change to it, has to be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament with at least two-third majority.
    • The judiciary plays an important role in the implementation of constitutional procedures. In case of any dispute about division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.

Explain any five features of federalism. (2015)

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Features of federalism:

  1. There are two or more levels of government.
  2. Different levels of government govern the same citizens, where each level has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  3. Existence and authority of each level of government is constitutionally governed.
  4. The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
  5. Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution and powers of the different levels of government. The highest court acts as the umpire if any dispute arises between different levels of governments.
  6. Sources of revenue for each level of government are specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
  7. Federal system has dual objectives. To safeguard and promote unity of the country, and to accommodate regional diversity.

Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which are the policies adopted by India that have ensured it? Explain. (2013, 2012)

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Answer :

Reasons for success of federalism in India are:

  1. Clearly laid out Constitutional Provisions providing a three-fold distribution of powers in the three lists—Union List, State List and Concurrent List—between the Union Government and State Governments.
  2. The nature of democratic politics in our country which ensures that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together became a shared ideal.
  3. The creation of linguistic states. Boundaries of several old states of India were changed in order to create new states. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state. Later some states were created to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.
    For example: Nagaland, Uttrakhand, Jharkhand, Telangana, etc.
  4. Restricting Centre-State relations. The constitutional arrangements for sharing power work depending on how the ruling parties and leaders follow these arrangements. For a long time, the same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of states. Post-1990 saw the rise of regional parties. Since no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the national parties had to enter into an alliance which led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for autonomy of State Governments.

Which five provisions of the constitutional amendment of 1992 really strengthened the third tier of democracy in India? Explain. (2015, 2013, 2012)

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Answer :

Major steps towards decentralisation and strengthening of third tier taken in 1992 were:

  1. Now it is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to Local Government bodies.
  2. Seats are reserved in elected bodies for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes (OBCs).
  3. Atleast one-third of all positions and seats are reserved for women.
  4. An independent institution called the State Election Commission was created to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.
  5. The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with Local Government bodies.

State two agreements through which federations have been formed. Give an example of each.

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(i) ‘Coming together’ federations—This agreement induces independent states coming together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security.
Examples are: USA, Switzerland and Australia. All the constituent states have equal power and are strong vis-a-vis the federal government.

(ii) ‘Holding together’ federations — In this agreement, a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. The Central Governments tend to be more powerful vis-a-vis the states. Often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers. Some units are granted special powers, for example, India granted special powers to Jammu & Kashmir.
Other examples are Spain and Belgium.

India comes under which type of federation and why? (2014)

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Answer :

India comes under ‘a holding together’ type federation. In this type of federation, a large country divides its power between the constituent States and the National government. There is one government for the entire country and the others are governments at the State level. Both Central and State Governments enjoy their power independent of the other.

The Central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the states. Often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers. For example, special powers have been granted to Jammu & Kashmir.

Why is decentralisation favoured in democracy? Identify any two reasons. (2014)

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Answer :

Five advantages of decentralisation of power:

  1. When power is taken away from Central and State Governments and given to local governments, it is called decentralisation. The basic idea behind decentralisation is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities.
  2. They also have better ideas on where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently.
  3. Besides, at the local level, it is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. This helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation.
  4. Local government is the best way to realise one important principle of democracy, namely local self¬government.
  5. The need for decentralisation was recognised in our Constitution. A major step towards decentralisation was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

1

Panchayati Raj involves

A

USA

2

Panchayati Raj doesn’t involves

B

The village, Block and District Levels

3

an example of ‘coming together federation’

C

India

4

Not an example of ‘coming together federation’

D

The village, Block and District Levels

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1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

an example of holding together federation

A

Defence

2

Not an example of holding together federation

B

India

3

falls under the Concurrent list

C

USA

4

Doesn’t falls under the Concurrent list

D

Marriage

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1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

In local self-government institutions at least 1/3 of all positions are reserved for

A

Women

2

Rural local government is popularly called as:

B

Different tiers of government govern the same citizens

3

a feature of federalism

C

Panchayati Raj

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1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

not a feature of federalism

A

22

2

a feature of federalism

B

The centre government can order the state government

3

other lanugages are recognised as Scheduled Languages by the constitution

C

Two or more levels of government

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1-B, 2-C, 3-A

1

subject doesn’t  included in the state list

A

 Agriculture

 

2

subject included in the state list

B

Defence

3

subjects Union List includes

C

National Defence

4

subjects Union List doesn’t  includes

D

Police

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Answer :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

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Browse & Download CBSE Books For Class 10 - All Subjects

The GSEB Books for class 10 are designed as per the syllabus followed Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board provides key detailed, and a through solutions to all the questions relating to the GSEB textbooks.

The purpose is to provide help to the students with their homework, preparing for the examinations and personal learning. These books are very helpful for the preparation of examination.

For more details about the GSEB books for Class 10, you can access the PDF which is as in the above given links for the same.

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