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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

What is an oxidation reaction ? Identify in the following reactions :
(i) the substance oxidised
(ii) the substance reduced.
 

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જવાબ : ZnO + C ———> Zn + CO
Oxidation involves the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen in a chemical reaction. In the given reaction, carbon is oxidised to carbon monoxide while zinc oxide is reduced to zinc.


(a) Why is combustion reaction an oxidation reaction ?
(b) How will you test whether the gas evolved in a reaction is hydrogen ?
(c) Why does not silver evolve hydrogen on reacting with dillute sulphuric acid ?

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જવાબ : (a) Combustion reaction is an oxidation reaction because it is always carried in the presence of air or oxygen. For example,
CH4(s) + 2O2(g) ——–> CO2(g) + 2H2O (l)
(b) Bring a burning match stick close to the mouth of the tube from which hydrogen gas escapes. The gas will immediately catch fire and this will be accompanied by pop sound.
(c) Silver is a less reactive metal in the sense that it occupies a place below hydrogen in the reactivity series. Therefore it does not evolve hydrogen gas on reacting with either dilute sulphuric acid or dilute hydrochloric acid.


Name two metals which donot get corroded.

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જવાબ : Gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) don't get corroded.


What are neutralisation reactions ? Why are they so named ? Give one example.

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જવાબ : A neutralisation reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and base dissolved in water. For example,
KOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) ———-> KNO3(aq) + H2O (aq)
It is called neutralisation as both KN03 (salt) and H20 that are formed as the products, are of neutral nature.


Suggest two ways to see the rancidity of food articles.

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જવાબ : (a) Keep the articles in airtight containers,
(b) Keep the articles in refrigerator.


Give one example each of :
(i) Thermal decomposition reaction
(ii) Electrolytic decomposition reaction
(iii) Photo decomposition reaction. (CBSE 2014)

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જવાબ : Previous Year Question Papers for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 3


Identify the compound which is oxidised within the following reaction
H2S + Br2 ———–> 2HBr + S.

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જવાબ : H2S is oxidised to S because H2S has lost hydrogen.


What is the difference between the subsequent two reactions ?
(a) Mg + 2HCl ——–> MgCl2 + H2
(b) NaOH + HCl ——–> NaCl + H2O.

 

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જવાબ : (a) It is a single displacement reaction,
(b) it's a double displacement also called neutralization .


Aluminium is a reactive metal but is still used for packing food articles. Why ?

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જવાબ : From the position of the aluminium (Al) metal in the activity series, it seems to be quite reactive. However, it is not so reactive. Actually, when the metal is kept in air or oxygen for sometime, it is converted into its oxide called aluminum oxide (Al2O3). This gets deposited as the surface of the metal as a thin coating. It is rather passive which means that it is not reactive. Therefore, the metal is used for packing food articles which do not get spoiled under the foil.


What happens when :
CO2(g) is bubbled through lime water (i) in small amount (ii) in excess

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જવાબ : (i) Solution becomes milky due to the formation of calcium carbonate
Previous Year Question Papers for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 1
(ii) Milkiness disappears because calcium carbonate changes to calcium hydrogen carbonate which is colourless in nature.
Previous Year Question Papers for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 2


Which of the subsequent may be a combination reaction and which may be a displacement ?
(a) Cl2 + 2KI ——–> 2KCl + I2
(b) 2K + Cl2 ——–> 2KCl.

 

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જવાબ : (a) It is a displacement reaction,
(b) It is a combination reaction.


Identify the foremost reactive and least reactive metal : Al, K, Ca, Au.
 

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જવાબ : Most reactive metal : K (potassium) ; Least reactive metal : Au (gold).


Which types of reactions are represented by the following equations ?
(a) CaO + CO2 ——-> CaCO3
(b) Mg + CuSO4 ——–> MgSO4 + Cu
(c) CH4 + 2O2 ———–> CO2 + 2H2O
(d) NH4NO2 ———-> N2 + 2H2O.

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જવાબ : (a) Combination reaction
(b) Displacement reaction
(c) Combustion reaction
(d) Decomposition reaction


Identify the substance oxidised and substance reduced within the following reactions
(i) ZnO(s) + C(s) ———> Zn(s) + CO(g)
(ii) 2Na(s) + O2(g) ———> 2Na2O(s)
(iii) CuO(s) + H 2(g) ———> Cu(s) + H2O(l).

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જવાબ : (i) C is oxidised to CO and ZnO is reduced to Zn.
(ii) Na is oxidised to Na2O and O2 is reduced.
(iii) H2 is oxidised to H2O and CuO is reduced to Cu.


Name two salts that are utilized in black and white photography.

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જવાબ : Both silver chloride and silver bromide are used in black and white photography.


Take alittle amount of quicklime or quick lime during a beaker and slowly add water to the present . Is there any change in temperature ?

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જવાબ : Yes, the temperature increases since the method of dissolution of quicklime (CaO) in water is very exothermic in nature.


State the chemical process that takes place when lime stone is heated

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જવાબ : Calcium carbonate decomposes on heating to offer quicklime and CO2 .
CaCO3(s) heat , CaO(s) + CO2(g)
 


Fill in the Blanks : - The addition of oxygen to a substance is called …………. whereas removal of oxygen is called …………. .

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જવાબ : oxidation, reduction


Fill in the blanks :- ………….. is burnt in air to form magnesium oxide.

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જવાબ : Magnesium


Fill in the blanks :- Complete the missing components/variables given as x and y in the following reactions:
(a) Pb (NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → Pbl2 (x) + 2KNO3 (y)
(b) Cu (s) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → Cu (NO3)2 (aq) + x (s)

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જવાબ : (a) x → (s); y → (aq);
(b) x → 2Ag


Fill in the blanks :- Na2SO4 + BaCl2 → …………. + 2NaCl

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જવાબ : BaSO4


Fill in the blanks :- 2 FeSO4 → Fe2O3 + SO2 + ………….

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જવાબ : SO3


Fill in the blanks :- …………. is the process in which metals are eaten up gradually by the action of air, moisture or a chemical on their surface.

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જવાબ : Corrosion


Fill in the blanks :- Two antioxidants which are usually added to fat and oil containing foods to prevent rancidity, are …………., …………. .

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જવાબ : BHA & BHT


Fill in the blanks :- Reaction in which an element displaces another element from its compound is called …………. .

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જવાબ : displacement reaction


Fill in the blanks :- Reactions in which energy is given out are known as …………. .

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જવાબ : exothermic reactions


Fill in the blanks :- Precipitation reactions produce insoluble …………. .

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જવાબ : salts


Fill in the blanks :- The addition of hydrogen to a substance is called …………. whereas removal of hydrogen is called …………. .

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જવાબ : reduction, oxidation


Fill in the blanks :-  Magnesium is able to displace copper from copper sulphate solution because magnesium is ………….. reactive than copper.

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જવાબ : more


Fill in the blanks :-  The oxidation and reduction reaction are also called ………….. reactions.

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જવાબ : redox


Fill in the blanks :-  ………….. can be retarded by storing foods away from light.

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જવાબ : Rancidity


Fill in the blanks :-  In rusting of iron, reddish brown coating formed on iron is …………..

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જવાબ : Fe2O3


Fill in the blanks :-  ………….. are added to foods containing fats and oil.

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જવાબ : Antioxidants


Oxidation is the gain of ………….. or loss of …………..

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જવાબ : Answer: oxygen, hydrogen


Fill in the blanks :-  Any reaction that produces a ………….. is called a precipitation reaction.

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જવાબ : Precipitate


Fill in the blanks :-  Zinc and lead are more reactive elements than …………..

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જવાબ : copper


Fill in the blanks :-  Respiration is an ………….. reaction.

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જવાબ : exothermic


Why doesn't a wall immediately acquire a white colour when a coating of calcium hydroxide is applied on it?
 

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જવાબ : Slaked lime as such is not very white. When applied on the wall, CO2 gas present in air reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium carbonate. It is quite white and therefore, imparts white look to the wall.
Ca(OH)2 + CO2(g) ———> CaCO3(s) + H2O(l).


What is rust ?
 

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જવાબ : It is a brown mass referred to as hydrated oxide . Its formula is Fe2O3.xH2O.


In the reaction MnO2 + 4HCl —————> MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2; identify which one is reduced and which one is oxidized ?

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જવાબ : In this reaction HCl is oxidised to Cl2 and MnO2 is reduced to MnCl2.


Why are decomposition reactions called the other of combination reactions ? Write equations for these reactions.

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જવાબ : A decomposition could also be defined because the reaction during which one substance decomposes or splits into two or more substances under suitable conditions.
For example,
It may be concluded that a particular substance is made or synthesised together reaction and it breaks or splits in decomposition . Therefore, the two reactions oppose each other.


Give an example of a double displacement (only reaction with complete balanced equation).

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જવાબ : HCl(aq) + NaOH(g) ——–> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)


Identify the substance oxidised and reduced within the reaction :
CuO(s) + Zn(s) ———-> ZnO(s) + Cu(s).

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જવાબ : Zinc is oxidised to flowers of zinc and oxide is reduced to copper.


How will you recognize whether a sample of cheese has become rancid or not ?

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જવાબ : If the cheese starts giving foul smell, it means it's become rancid.


Why are eatables preferably packed in aluminium foils ?

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જવાબ : Aluminium foils donot corrode in atmosphere albeit kept for an extended time. Actually, a protective coating of alumina (Al2O3) is made on the surface of the metal. It stops any longer reaction of the metal with air (oxygen) and water. The eatables do not get spoiled.


What happens chemically when quick lime is added to water ?

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જવાબ : Calcium hydroxide (or slaked lime) is made amid a hissing sound. So much heat is evolved during the reaction that the reaction mixture starts boiling. The chemical equation for the reaction is :


Give an example of exothermic reaction.

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જવાબ : CH4(g) + 2CO2(g) ———-> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + heat, (evolved)


Give an example of endothermic reaction.

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જવાબ : N2(g) + O2(g) ———> 2NO(g) – heat, (absorbed).


Name the gas which will be used for the storage of fresh sample of chips for an extended time.

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જવાબ : The gas is nitrogen (N2). It checks rancidity of food articles.


Name the type of reaction
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ———-> 2NH3(g)

 

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જવાબ : It is an example of combination reaction.


A silver article generally turns black when kept in the open for a few days. The article when rubbed with toothpaste again starts shining.
(a) Why do silver articles turn black when kept in the open for a few days? Name the phenomenon involved.
(b) Name the black substance formed and give its chemical formula
.   

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જવાબ : (a) Silver articles turn black when kept in the air for a few days because H2S gas present in the air attacks silver forming a coating of black silver sulphide. The phenomenon is called corrosion.

(b) Black substance formed is silver sulphide (Ag2S)
2Ag (s) + H2S (g) → Ag2S (s) + H(g).


The gases hydrogen and chlorine do not react with each other even if kept together for a long time. However, in the presence of sunlight, they readily combine. What actually happens?

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જવાબ : In chemical reactions, energy is needed to break the bonds present in the reacting molecules so that they may combine to form the products. In this reaction, sunlight is the source of energy in the form of photons. The energy made available by sunlight helps in breaking the bonds and this leads to chemical reaction between hydrogen and chlorine.
Chemical Reactions and Equations Class 10 Extra Questions Science Chapter 1, 11


What is corrosion? State conditions necessary for rusting of iron. How is rusting harmful?

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જવાબ : Corrosion.

The process of eating away of the metal surface by the action of atmospheric reagents like water, oxygen and acids changing the metal into its compound is called corrosion.

Rusting of iron. When iron objects are exposed to atmosphere, they are attacked by air and moisture (water) of the atmosphere and a brown and orange coloured layer is formed on the surface. It is called rust which is mainly hydrated iron (III) oxide Fe2O3. xH2O.

Harmful effect of rusting. Hydrated iron (III) oxide is a brittle substance and falls off from the surface of iron and thus the object is damaged. Holes, cavities and roughness of surfaces are the result of rusting of an iron object.

Conditions necessary for rusting:

  • Open surface of the metal
  • Presence of air (oxygen)
  • Presence of moisture (water).


During the reaction of some metals with dilute hydrochloric acid, following observations were made,
(a) Silver metal does not show any change.
(b) The temperature of the reaction mixture rises when aluminium (Al) is added.
(c) The reaction of sodium metal is found to be highly explosive.
(d) Some bubbles of a gas are seen when lead (Pb) is reacted with the acid.
Explain these observations giving suitable reasons.

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જવાબ : (a) No change takes place because silver metal does not react with hydrochloric acid in normal situations.
(b) The reaction between hydrochloric acid and aluminium is exothermic, thus the temperature of the reaction mixture rises when aluminium is added.
(c) Since, sodium is a highly reactive metal, thus it reacts with hydrochloric acid vigorously and produces a large amount of heat. Thus, the reaction is exothermic.
(d) Bubbles of hydrogen gas are formed when lead react with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Pb + 2HCl → PbCl2 + H2


What happens when aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate and barium chloride are mixed? What type of reaction is it?

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જવાબ : On mixing the solutions of sodium sulphate and barium chloride, a white precipitate of barium sulphate is obtained.
Chemical Reactions and Equations Class 10 Extra Questions with Answers Science Chapter 1, 2
It is a double displacement reaction.


What do you understand by precipitation reaction? Explain with suitable examples.

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જવાબ : The reaction in which two compounds in their aqueous state react to form an insoluble compound. When two reactants react and product formed remains insoluble and settles as a solid it is substance (precipitate) is called a precipitation reaction.

For example,
(i) When aqueous solution of sodium sulphate is mixed with an aqueous solution or barium chloride, barium sulphate is obtained as a white precipitate.
Na2SO(aq) + BaCl(aq) → BaSO(s) + 2NaCl (ag)

(ii) When aqueous solution of sodium chloride is mixed with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate, silver chloride is obtained as a white precipitate.


You are given the following materials
(i) Marble chips (ii) Zinc granules
Identify the type of reaction when marble chips and zinc granules are added separately to acid taken in two test tubes.

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જવાબ : (i) Marble chips react with dilute hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. It is a double displacement reaction.
CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

(ii) Zinc granules react with dilute hydrochloric acid to give hydrogen gas. It is a displacement reaction.
Zn (s) + 2HCl → ZnCl(aq) + H(g)


Describe an activity to demonstrate the change that takes place when white silver chloride is kept in sunlight. State the type of chemical reaction which takes place.

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જવાબ : Aim: To demonstrate the change that takes place when white silver chloride is kept in sunlight.
Materials Required: AgNO3(aq), NaCl(aq), test tubes.
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-49
Procedure:
1. Take 5 ml of silver nitrate solution in a test tube.
2. Prepare sodium chloride solution in another test tube.
3. Add sodium chloride solution into test tube containing silver nitrate solution.
4. Observe the colour of silver chloride formed chloride to grey silver metal Dry it with the help of filter papers and place it on the watch glass.
5. Place the watch glass under sunlight for sometime.
6. Observe the colour of the silver chloride after sometime. Observation: White silver chloride turns grey in sunlight because silver metal is formed.
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-50
Explanation: Silver chloride is photosensitive. It decomposes in presence of sunlight to form silver metal and chlorine gas.
Conclusion: Decomposition of silver chloride in presence of sunlight is photochemical decomposition reaction.


(a) A solution of substance ‘X’ is used for white washing. What is the substance ‘X’? State the chemical reaction of ‘X’ with water.
(b) Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is dipped in it?

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જવાબ : (a) ‘X’ is calcium oxide (CaO).
CaO(s) + H2O(l) —–> Ca(OH)2(aq) + heat
(a) It is because iron displaces copper from CuS04 to form FeS04 which is pale green.
Fe(s) + CUS04 (aq)—–> FeS04(aq) + Cu(s)
Blue                       Pale green


Using a suitable chemical equation, justify that some chemical reactions are determined by:
(i) change in colour, (ii) change in temperature.

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જવાબ : chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-25


What is redox reaction? Identify the substance oxidised and the substance reduced in the following reactions.
(i)2PbO + C —–> 2Pb + CO2
(ii)MnO2 + 4HCl —–> MnCl2 + 2H20 + Cl2

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જવાબ : Those reactions in which oxidation and reduction takes place simultaneously are called redox reactions.
(i) PbO is getting reduced and C is getting oxidised.
(ii) MnOs is getting reduced and HCl is getting oxidised.


Write balanced chemical equation for the reactions that take place during respiration. Identify the type of combination reaction that takes place during this process and justify the name. Give one more example of this type of reaction.

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જવાબ : CgH1206 + 6O2 —————> 6CO2 + 6H20 + heat
It is an exothermic combination reaction because heat is evolved.
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ————–>CO2 (g) + 2H20
Combustion of methane is another example of exothermic combination reaction.


What is rancidity? Mention any two ways by which rancidity can be prevented.

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જવાબ : The process in which taste and smell of food gets spoiled is called rancidity. It happens due to oxidation.
Prevention from rancidity:
(i) Antioxidants are added to fatty acids to prevent oxidation, e.g. chips are packed in presence of nitrogen gas which prevents spoilage by oxidation.
(ii)Food should be kept in airtight container in refrigerator.


The following diagram displays a chemical reaction. Observe carefully and answer the following questions
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-21
(a) Identify the type of chemical reaction that will take place and define it. How will the colour of the salt change?
(b)Write the chemical equation of the reaction that takes place.
(c) Mention one commercial use of this salt.
 

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જવાબ : (a) Photochemical decomposition reaction: Those reactions in which a compound breaks down into simple substances in presence of light are called photochemical decomposition reaction. The colour of salt will change from white to grey.
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-22
(c) Silver chloride is used in photography.


What is the colour of ferrous sulphate crystals? How does this colour change after heating?

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જવાબ : The colour of ferrous sulphate is pale green. The colour changes to reddish brown on heating due to formation of iron (III) oxide.
Give an example each for thermal decomposition and photochemical decomposition reactions. Write relevant balanced chemical equations also.
Thermal decomposition reaction:
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-17
Photochemical decomposition reaction:
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-18


Describe an activity to observe what happens when quick lime is added to water taken in a beaker. State two important observations and name the type of reaction taking place.

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જવાબ : Aim: To observe what happens when quicklime is added to water taken in a beaker.
Materials Required:- Quicklime (calcium oxide), water, beaker.
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-15
Procedure:
1. Take 5 g of calcium oxide in a beaker.
2. Add water to it slowly.
3. Touch the beaker.
4. Note down the observations.
Observation: Calcium oxide reacts with water
vigorously to form calcium hydroxide with the evolution of heat.
Chemical Reaction:
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-16
Conclusion: The reaction between CaO (Calcium oxide) and H2O is a combination reaction. It is an exothermic process because heat is evolved.


What is meant by skeltal type chemical equation? What does it represent? Using the equation for electrolytic decomposition of water, differentiate between a skeltal chemical equation and a balanced chemical equation.

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જવાબ : The equations in which gaseous are written in atomic form instead of molecular form and equation is not balanced, are called skeltal type equation. They represent gaseous elements formed in atomic state and equation is not balanced
chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-12


(a) Write one example for each of decomposion reaction carried out with help of
(i) Electricity (ii) Heat (iii) Light
(b) Which of the following statements is correct and why copper can displace silver from silver nitrate and silver can displace copper from copper sulphate solution.

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જવાબ : chemical-reactions-and-equations-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-10


(a) Explain two ways by which food industries prevent rancidity.
(b) Discuss the importance of decomposition reaction in metal industry with three points.

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જવાબ : (a) (i) Rancidity can be prevented by adding antioxidants to food containing
fat and oil, e.g. butylated hydroxy anisole is added to butter as antioxidant.
(ii) It can be prevented by packaging fat and oil containing foods in nitrogen gas.
(b) (i) Molten NaCl is electrolytically decomposed to form sodium metal.
(ii) Aluminium metal is obtained by electric decomposition of bauxite ore mixed with cryolite.
(iii) Carbonate ores are thermally decomposed to give metal oxide which on reduction give metal.


(a) Define a balanced chemical equation. Why should an equation be balanced?
(b) Write the balanced chemical equation for the following reaction:
(i) Phosphorus burns in presence of chlorine to form phosphorus penta chloride.
(ii) Burning of natural gas.
(iii) The process of respiration.

 

 

 

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જવાબ : (a) Balanced chemical equation has an equal number of atoms of different elements in the reactants and products. According to law of conservation of mass, matter can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reaction.
(b)(i) P4 (s) + 10Cl2 (g) ———> 4PCl5 (S)
(i)CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) ———> CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) + heat energy
(iii) C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) + 6H2O ———> 6CO2 (aq) + 12H2O (l) + energy


There are No Content Availble For this Chapter

a. Phenomenon in which iron vessels get damaged on adding copper sulphate solution

Precipitation

 

b. Phenomenon in which food material starts to smell badly on keeping

 Displacement

c. A reaction between acids and bases

Rancidity

d. A reaction in which one of the products becomes insoluble

Neutralisation

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જવાબ :

  1. Displacement
  2.  Rancidity
  3.  Neutralisation
  4. Precipitation

For the given reaction, match column I with column II and mark the correct option from the codes given below.
Fe2O3 + xCO → yFe + xCO2

Column I

Column II

(a) Oxidising agent

(p) 2

(b) Reducing agent

(q) 3

(c) x

(r) Fe2O3

(d) y

(s) CO

Column I

Column II

(a) Oxidising agent

(r) Fe2O3

(b) Reducing agent

(s) CO

(c) x

(q) 3

(d) y

(p) 2

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જવાબ :

Column I

Column II

(a) Oxidising agent

(r) Fe2O3

(b) Reducing agent

(s) CO

(c) x

(q) 3

(d) y

(p) 2

જવાબ :

(a) → (q)
(b) → (r)
(c) → (p)
(d) → (s)

Symbols

Meaning

(a) →

(p) Aqueous

(b) (g)

(q) Yield or gives

(c) Δ

(r) Heat

(d) (aq)

(s) Liberation of gas

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જવાબ :

Symbols

Meaning

(a) →

(q) Yield or gives

(b) (g)

(s) Liberation of gas

(c) Δ

(r) Heat

(d) (aq)

(p) Aqueous

Column I

Column II

(a) Combination reaction

(p) Synthesis

(b) Oxidation of iron

(q) Splitting-up of reactants

(c) Displacement reaction

(r) Combustion

(d) Decomposition

(s) Substitution

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જવાબ :

(a) Combination reaction

(p) Synthesis

(b) Oxidation of iron

(r) Combustion

(c) Displacement reaction

(s) Substitution

(d) Decomposition

(q) Splitting-up of reactants

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Chemical Reactions and Equations

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The GSEB Books for class 10 are designed as per the syllabus followed Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board provides key detailed, and a through solutions to all the questions relating to the GSEB textbooks.

The purpose is to provide help to the students with their homework, preparing for the examinations and personal learning. These books are very helpful for the preparation of examination.

For more details about the GSEB books for Class 10, you can access the PDF which is as in the above given links for the same.