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જવાબ : Hormones
જવાબ : Electrical
જવાબ : Brain, spinal cord
જવાબ : Cerebrum
જવાબ : Growth
જવાબ : Chemotropic
જવાબ : dendrite, electrical
જવાબ : Synapse
જવાબ : nerve cells, neurons
જવાબ : reflex actions
જવાબ : fore brain
જવાબ : vertebral column
જવાબ : growth
જવાબ : negative
જવાબ : Abscisic acid
જવાબ : iodine
જવાબ : The smell of agarbatti (incense stick) diffuses in the air. It is detected by olfactory receptors present in the nose. This information is sent to olfactory lobe by sensory nerves located in the forebrain. It responds to the information.
જવાબ : The small empty space between two nerve cells is called synapse. At synapse, a chemical substance is produced at the end of axon of one nerve cell that reaches to the other nerve cell through the dendrite. Thus, information is transmitted from one nerve cell to other nerve cell by synapse.
જવાબ : Posture and equilibrium of the body are controlled by cerebellum.
જવાબ : There is no role of brain in reflex action. These involuntary actions are controlled by the spinal cord which takes place immediately without thinking of how to respond to the stimuli.
જવાબ : Plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Plant hormones are the chemical substances which help in controlling growth, flowering, height, development of plants and their response to the environment.
જવાબ : When the tip of a tendril touches a support, then the Auxin present in its tip move to that side of tip which is away from the support. Auxin promotes growth. So, due to more Auxin in it, the side of tendril away from the support grows faster (and becomes longer) than the side which is in contact with the support and makes the tendril twirl (or bend) around the support.
જવાબ : Chemical coordination in animals takes place through the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands. Coordination in animals takes place through hormone system as well as nervous system which is called endocrine system. Endocrine glands secrete animal hormones directly into the blood that reach to the specific cells. Special types of molecules are present on the surface of cells to detect these hormones. These cells act according to the information that a particular hormone carries.
જવાબ : It is advised to use iodized salt because thyroid gland needs iodine to produce thyroxin hormone. Thyroxin hormone controls all the metabolic activities of our body like metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein etc. Due to the deficiency of thyroxin a disease called goitre is caused.
જવાબ : The heart beat increases when adrenaline is secreted into the blood so that more oxygen is supplied to our muscles. The blood supply to the digestive system and skin decreases because the small arteries around the muscles of these organs contract. This turns the direction of blood towards our skeletal muscles. The breathing rate also increases due to the contractions of the diaphragm and rib muscles. All these responses enable us to face the situations of fear and anger.
જવાબ : Insulin hormone regulates blood sugar levels. If this is not secreted in proper amounts, the sugar level in the blood rises. This causes many harmful effects.
To treat harmful effects of increased level of blood sugar, the diabetic patients are treated by giving injections of insulin.
જવાબ : The movement in any part of a plant due to light is called phototropism. The shoot of plant shows positive phototropism and roots show negative phototropism.
Phototropism in plants occurs due to the hormone Auxin. When light falls on one side of a plant, the secretion of Auxin hormone is more in the part away from the light. Hence, Auxin causes growth in length of the cells in shady part. So, the plant appears to bend towards light.
જવાબ : (i) All the involuntary actions will get disturbed.
(ii) Reflex actions will be disturbed because reflexes are located in the spinal cord. Therefore, the quick responses required to safe guard the body will not take place.
જવાબ : Chemical coordination in plants takes place with the help of plant hormones. In most of the regions where division takes place (meristematic regions) stimuli cells secrete chemical compounds (hormone). These substances identify the information by stimulating the other nearby cells and communicating the information.
જવાબ : An organism needs control and coordination system for the following functions :
(i) To save the body of the organisms from the harmful changes in the environment.
(ii) To control the speed of voluntary and involuntary actions.
(iii) To have the capability to think and learn for responding to any stimuli.
જવાબ : 1. Prolactin (Maternity Hormone): Production of milk.
2. Oxytocin: Ejection of milk.
જવાબ : Pancreas produces two hormones
જવાબ : Progesterone is called pregnancy hormone. It helps in maintaining pregnancy by non-formation of new ova, promoting thickening and secretary activity of uterine wall and attachment of embryo to the uterine wall.
જવાબ : Dormin is the other name of plant hormone abscisic acid. The hormone induces dormancy in buds and seeds. So it has been called Dormin.
જવાબ : Similarity:
(i) In both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, food is broken down to release energy.
(ii) Both takes place inside cells.
(iii) Both produce byproducts.
જવાબ : Chemical coordination in animals takes place through the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands. Coordination in animals takes place through hormone system as well as nervous system which is called endocrine system. Endocrine glands secrete animal hormones directly into the blood that reach to the specific cells. Special type of molecules is present on the surface of cells to detect these hormones. These cells act according to the information that a particular hormone carries.
જવાબ : Receptors are specialized cells located in our sense organs like ear, nose, skin, tongue and eyes. The function of receptors is to detect information from the environment. For example, olfactory receptors detect smell. If receptors do not work properly, the information obtained from the environment will be delayed to reach the spinal cord or brain. In this situation, the response to the environmental stimulus will be delayed causing harm to the body. For example, if skin receptors are damaged, and one accidentally touches a hot object, then his/her hands might get burn as the damaged receptor cannot perceive the external stimuli of heat and pain.
|Movement in a sensitive (mimosa) plant||Movement in legs of a human|
જવાબ : (a)
જવાબ : (a) Plant Hormones:
Phytohormones are chemical substances other than nutrients produced naturally in plants which regulate growth, development, differentiation and a number of physiological processes, e.g., Auxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, cytokines.
જવાબ : Tendrils do not have any sensory structures but still they are able to find their support just as we grope in the dark for finding the switch-board. Tendrils perform Circumnutation from their apical regions. In this the terminal parts of tendrils move in all directions. Wherever they come in contact with a support, they stop performing Circumnutation. Instead, the contacted region shows little growth while the other side grows rapidly so that the tendril coils over the support.
જવાબ : Autonomous or visceral nervous system. The system does not consult the will of the individual. It works on its own inputs. Autonomous nervous system consists of only motor nerve fibers that innervate all organs and glands of the body. Depending upon the input, autonomous nervous system stimulates, slows down or stops the activity of an organ. For its working, autonomous or visceral nervous system has two components, sympathetic and parasympathetic. Sympathetic nervous system originates from thoracico-lumbar region, forms two ganglionic chains which send out long nerve fibres to various organs. The sympathetic nerve fibres activate the organs by release of nor-adrenaline. Parasympathetic nervous system is called cranio-sacral as it originates from some cranial and sacral nerves. It has long preganglionic fibres and ganglia attached to organs that are innervated. Its post ganglionic fibres secrete acetylcholine into organs for moderating or reducing their activity.
જવાબ :Phototropism is a growth movement induced by a light stimulus. Growth towards a source of light is called positive phototropism, that away from the source is termed negative phototropism. The tips of shoots are usually positively, that of roots negatively phototropic.
જવાબ : It has been found that the growth of plants is regulated by certain chemical substances which are synthesized by the plants in very small amounts. These are known as plant hormones or phytohormones.They are the organic substances which either promote or inhibit growth. A phytohormones can be defined as a chemical substances which are produced naturally in plants and are capable of translocation and regulating one or more physiological processes when present in low concentration. Main categories of plant hormones are:
જવાબ : Co-ordination in this sense refers to the regulation or control of body activity.
Plants need very little in the way of a control system. Since growth and reproduction are about the only things that are regulated, a rapid control system is not required and hormonal control is all they possess.
જવાબ : All reflex actions are involuntary in nature but all involutary actions are not reflexes as the beating of heart is an involuntary action but is not reflex action.Reflex actions are very quick but all involutary actions may not be very fast as in heart beating.
જવાબ : Nervous system: Main parts of nervous system are: (i) Central nervous system, (ii) Peripheral nervous system, (iii) Autonomous System.
(i) Central Nervous System: It consist of
(a) Brain receives information carrying impulses from all the sensory organs (by sensory nerves) of the body and also from the spinal cord. The brain respond to the information by sending its own instructions (through motor nerves) to the muscles and glands to act accordingly. The brain also stores information and act as organ of thought and intelligence.
(b) Spinal cord: It is concerned with spinal reflex actions and the conduction of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
(ii) Peripheral Nervous system: it is composed of cranial nerves (nerves from the brain) and the spinal nerves. Both of these consist of sensory and motor neurons. So, they carry sensations to and messages from the brain and the spinal cord.
(iii) Autonomous Nervous System: It is that part of the peripheral nervous system which controls the activities of the internal organs such as stomach, heart-beat, etc. automatically even without our thinking about them. Its nerves are attached to the smooth muscles and control the activities of internal organs of the body involuntarily, many these nerves are connected with the mid- brain and hind-brain.
જવાબ : (a) Cerebellum is not functioning properly may affect-
(i)Walking in straight line
(ii)Riding a cycle
(iii)Maintaining the posture and balance of the body
(iv)Movement is very coordinate, the patient sways in walking and tend to fall towards the affected side.
(v)It is responsible for precision of voluntary actions.
(b) When the decision to move is conveyed by a nerve to a muscle, it has to act. In response to nervous electrical impulses. The special proteins of the muscle change both their shape and their arrangement in the cell. This new arrangement of these proteins gives the muscle cells a shorter form that causes movement of the muscle.
જવાબ : (i) Iodised salt supplies sufficient amount of iodine through our diet, even in the areas where iodine is not available naturally through water or otherwise in diet.
(ii) Iodine is necessary for the thyroid glands to make thyroxine hormone.
(iii) Proper supply of iodine maintains thyroxine level that regulates carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism to provide the best balance for growth.
(iv) Deficiency of iodine causes many diseases such as Goitre.
જવાબ : A very small gap that occurs between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron of the other neuron is known as a synapse. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses in one direction only. This uni-direction transfer of impulses occurs as the chemicals are produced in only one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. From axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron.
જવાબ : Reflex actions are sudden responses, which do not involve any thinking. For example, when we touch a hot object, we withdraw our hand immediately without thinking as thinking may take time which would be enough to get us burnt.The sensory nerves that detect the heat are connected to the nerves that move the muscles of the hand. Such a connection of detecting the signal from the nerves (input) and responding to it quickly (output) is called a reflex arc. The reflex arcs −connections present between the input and output nerves − meet in a bundle in the spinal cord.
જવાબ : Chemical coordination takes place in animals with the help of hormones.Hormone is the chemical messenger that regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by glands. The regulation of physiological processes, and control and coordination by hormones comes under the endocrine system. The nervous system along with the endocrine system in our body controls and coordinates the physiological processes.
જવાબ : Adrenalin is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in case of any danger or emergency or any kinds of stress. It is secreted directly into the blood and is transported to different parts of the body.When secreted in large amounts, it speeds up the heartbeat and hence supplies more oxygen to the muscles. The breathing rate also increases due to contractions of diaphragm and rib muscles. It also increases the blood pressure. All these responses enable the body to deal with any stress or emergency.
જવાબ : In animals, control and coordination occur with the help of nervous system. However, plants do not have a nervous system.Plants respond to stimuli by showing movements. The growth, development, and responses to the environment in plants is controlled and coordinated by a special class of chemical substances known as hormones. These hormones are produced in one part of the plant body and are translocated to other needy parts. For example, a hormone produced in roots is translocated to other parts when required. The five major types of phytohormone are Auxin, gibberellins, cytokines, abscisic acid, and ethylene. These phytohormone are either growth promoters (such as Auxin, gibberellins, cytokines, and ethylene) or growth inhibitors such as abscisic acid.
જવાબ : The maintenance of the body functions in response to changes in the body by working together of various integrated body systems is known as coordination. All the movements that occur in response to stimuli are carefully coordinated and controlled. In animals, the control and coordination movements are provided by nervous and muscular systems. The nervous system sends messages to and away from the brain. The spinal cord plays an important role in the relay of messages. In the absence of this system of control and coordination, our body will not be able to function properly. For example, when we accidentally touch a hot utensil, we immediately withdraw our hand. In the absence of nerve transmission, we will not withdraw our hand and may get burnt.
|Nervous system mechanism||Hormonal system mechanism|
|1.||The information is conveyed in the form of electric impulse.||1.||The information is conveyed in the form of chemical messengers.|
|2.||The axons and dendrites transmit the information through a coordinated effort.||2.||The information is transmitted or transported through blood.|
|3.||The flow of information is rapid and the response is quick.||3.||The information travels slowly and the response is slow.|
|4.||Its effects are short lived.||4.||It has prolonged effects.|
|Movement in sensitive plants||Movement in our legs|
|1.||The movementthat takes place in a sensitive plant such as Mimosa pudica occurs in response to touch (stimulus).||1.||Movement in our legs is an example of voluntary actions.|
|2.||For this movement, the information is transmitted from cell to cell by electro-chemical signals as plants do not have any specialised tissue for conduction of impulses.||2.||The signal or messages for these actions are passed to the brain and hence are consciously controlled.|
|3.||For this movement to occur, the plant cells change shape by changing the amount of water in them.||3.||In animal muscle cells, some proteins are found which allow the movement to occur.|
જવાબ : A reflex action is an automatic reaction for each stimulation in our body initiated by our sense responses e.g., we move our hand immediately after a contact with hot object. It is a direct controlled action. Walking is completely controlled by our brain. On the other hand, is a voluntary action. It requires complete coordination of muscles, bones, eyes etc.
જવાબ : Forebrain is responsible for thinking work. It has separate areas that are specialized for hearing, smelling, sight, taste, touch etc. The _ forebrain also has regions that collect information or impulses from various receptors. When the smell of an incense stick reaches us, out forebrain detects it. Then, the forebrain interprets it by putting it together with the information received from other receptors and also with the information already stored in the brain.
જવાબ : Adrenaline is secreted directly into the blood and carried to different parts of the body. The target organs or the specific tissues on which is acts include the heart. As a result, the heart beats faster, resulting in supply of more oxygen to our muscles. The blood to the digestive system and skin is reduced due to contraction of muscles around small arteries in these organs. This diverts the blood to our skeletal muscles. The breathing rate also increases because of the contractions of the diaphragm and the rib muscles.
જવાબ : Involuntary actions cannot be consciously controlled. For example, we cannot consciously control the movement of food in the alimentary canal. These actions are however, directly under the control of the brain. On the other hand, the reflex actions such as closing of eyes immediately when bright light is focused show sudden response and do not involve any thinking. This means that unlike involuntary actions, the reflex actions are not under the control of brain.
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