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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

Define Nation.

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જવાબ : A body of people who are united by same past, culture, political system and common interests can be defined as a Nation.


What was the concept of a nation-state?

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જવાબ : The concept of a nation-state was one in which people and rulers of land came together to develop a sense of common identity and shared history.


Define Plebiscite.

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જવાબ : Plebiscite is a system of direct vote by which the people of a region, themselves decide to accept or reject a proposal.


What is referred to as Absolutism?

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જવાબ : Unrestricted, despotic and authoritarian monarchial system of rule or government is referred to as absolutism.


Which kind of government was operating in France before the revolution of 1789?

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જવાબ : Explanation: Monarchy


What was the mission of the French revolutionaries?

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જવાબ : The mission of the French revolutionaries was to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help people to form nations.


What was Napoleonic Code?

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જવાબ : Napoleonic code refers to reforms incorporated in administration to make the system more rational and efficient.


Name the provinces under the Habsburg Empire.

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જવાબ : The Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria- Hungary. It included the Alpine region of Tyrol, Austria, Sudetenland as well as Bohemia along with Italian speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.


Name any two Italian-speaking provinces of the Habsburg Empire.

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જવાબ : Lombardy and Venetia.


What was the tie that bind the diverse groups of Habsburg Empire?

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જવાબ : Common allegiance to the emperor.


What did the new social group comprise of that came into being in the 19th century comprised of?

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જવાબ : The new social group that came into being in the 19th century comprised of working class and middle class made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals.


What ideas gained popularity among the educated liberal middle class?

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જવાબ : The ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity among the educated liberal middle class.


What did liberalism stand for the new middle classes?

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જવાબ : For new middle classes, liberalism Stood for freedom for individual and equality of all before the law.


What did 19th century liberals stress upon?

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જવાબ : 19th century liberals stressed upon inviolability of private property.


What does suffrage mean?

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જવાબ : Suffrage means the right to vote.


What was the status of women under the Napoleonic Code?

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જવાબ : Napoleonic code reduced women to the status of a minor, subjected to the authority of fathers and husbands.


What did liberalism stand for the economic sphere?

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જવાબ : In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for freedom of markets and abolition of restriction on the movement of goods and capital.


What was the strong demand of the emerging middle class in Europe during the 19th century? [Foreign 2016]

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જવાબ : Freedom of markets and abolition of restriction on the movement of goods and capital were strong demands of the emerging middle class in Europe during the 19th century.


What was the basic philosophy of the conservatives?

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જવાબ : The basic philosophy of the conservatives was to preserve the traditional institutions such as church, monarchy, social hierarchies, property and family etc.


Name the dynasty which was deposed during the French Revolution and later restored to power by conservatives.

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જવાબ : The Bourbon dynasty


What led Europe into disaster in 1914?

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જવાબ : Nationalism aligned with imperialism.


Name the powers that were keen in countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending their control over the area.

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જવાબ : Russia, Germany, England and Austro- Hungary.


What made the Balkan area explosive?

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જવાબ : Spread of romantic nationalism and disintegration of Ottoman Empire.


Who were the Slavs?

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જવાબ : The inhabitants of the regions under the Ottoman Empire like modem-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro were called the Slavs.


What was Germania?

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જવાબ : It was an allegory of Germany.


Marianne represented France as________.

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જવાબ : nation


What is an allegory?

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જવાબ : An idea expressed in the form of a person or a thing.


What was the result of the Act of Union (1707)?

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જવાબ : The Act of Union 1707 resulted in the formation of United Kingdom of Great Britain with the incorporation of Scotland.


Name the ethnic groups who inhabited the British Isles.

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જવાબ : The English, Welsh, Scot or Irish


In 1861, who was proclaimed the king of united Italy?

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જવાબ : Victor Emmanuel II


Who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy?

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જવાબ : Chief Minister of Sardinia – Piedmont Cavour


Who headed Sardinia-Piedmont?

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જવાબ : King Victor Emmanuel II


Who was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871? [All India 2016]

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જવાબ : Kaiser William I


Who holds the credit of unifying Germany?

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જવાબ : Otto von Bismarck


Which state led the unification of Germany?

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જવાબ : Prussia led the unification of Germany.


Why did the middle class lose its support after the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament?

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જવાબ : Because they resisted the demands of the workers and the artisans.


Where was the Frankfurt Parliament convened?

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જવાબ : The Frankfurt Parliament was convened at the Church of St Paul.


What was the result of the rise in population in Europe in the first half of the 19th century?

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જવાબ : It created unemployment and many people from the mral areas started migrating to the cities in search of jobs.


_______ was the term given to true spirit of a nation in Germany.

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જવાબ : Volksgeist.


What is meant by das volk?

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જવાબ : Das volk is a German word meaning common people.


What did the Romantic artists and poets criticise?

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જવાબ : They criticised glorification of reason and science.


_________ claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people.

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જવાબ : Johann Gottfried Hardor.


How did Lord Byron contribute to the Greek war of Independence?

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જવાબ : Lord Byron, an English poet, organised funds for the Greek struggle against the Ottoman Empire and also participated in the war.


Who remarked “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”? [All India 2016]

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જવાબ : Duke Mettemich


________ headed the constitutional monarchy installed by liberal revolutionaries in 1830

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જવાબ : Louis Philippe 


How was Mazzini described by Mettemich?

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જવાબ : Mettemich described Mazzini as the most dangerous enemy of the social order.


What views did Giuseppe Mazzini have about Italy?

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જવાબ : It was Mazzini’s belief that God wanted nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could no longer be a patchwork of small states. It had to take shape of a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.


What was the main aim of the revolutionaries of Europe? [Delhi 2016]

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જવાબ : The European revolutionaries aimed at opposing the monarchial order established after the Vienna Congress and struggle for liberty and freedom.


What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalists? [Foreign 2015]

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જવાબ : The liberal nationalists took up the issue of freedom autocratic of press.


What was the nature of Conservative regimes set up in 1815?

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જવાબ : The conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic in nature.


Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. (2017 D)

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જવાબ :

  • The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch.
  • When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.
French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:

  1. The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  2. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  3. A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  4. Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  5. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
  6. They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.


Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. 2017OD

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જવાબ : Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:

  1. Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
  2. Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine- made goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
  3. In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.


What did Liberal Nationalism stand for? Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere. (2011 OD)

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જવાબ : Liberalism or Liberal Nationalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Lour ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere are:

  1. Liberalism stood for freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restriction. For example, Napoleon’s administration was a confederation of 29 states, each of these possessed its own currencies, weight and measures. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange.
  2. Liberal Nationalists argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
  3. In 1834, a customs union or ” zollverein” was formed. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2.
  4. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interest to national unification.


How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe? Explain with examples. (2013 D)

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જવાબ : Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
(i) Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.

(ii) Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation.
In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania.

(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.

(iv) Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.


Explain any five economic hardships that Europe faced in the 1830s. (2016 OD, 2013 OD, 2011 D)

Or
“The decode of 1830 has brought great economic hardship in Europe”.

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જવાબ : Support the statement with arguments.
Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:

  1. Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
  2. Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
  3. Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
  4. In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
  5. The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.


Describe any five measures which were introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. (2016 D, 2015 OD, 2012 OD)

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જવાબ :

  • The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch.
  • When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.
French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:

  1. The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  2. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  3. A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  4. Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  5. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
  6. They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.


“Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support the statement. (2016 OD, 2014 OD, 2012 D)

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જવાબ : Napoleon had brought revolutionary changes in the administrative field in order to make the whole system rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 is usually known as the Napoleonic Code.

  1. The first major change was doing away with all privileges based on birth, establishing equality before law and securing the right to property.
  2. Administrative divisions were simplified.
  3. Feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues (abuse of manorial lords).
  4. In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
  5. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  6. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
  7. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods in particular began to realize that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.


How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European States after 1815? Explain with examples. (2014 OD)

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જવાબ : During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground.

  1. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Revolutionary ideas were spread by opposing monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom.
  2. Most of the revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
  3. Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary bom in Geneva in 1807. He was a member of the Secret Society of the Carbonari. He attempted a revolution in 1831 and was sent into exile.
  4. He had set up two more underground societies, namely, Young Italy (1832) in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne. The members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and Germany.
  5. He opposed monarchy and small states and kingdoms and dreamt of a Democratic Republic. He believed the unification of Italy alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.


Describe the process of unification of Germany. (2015 D, 2013 D, 2012 D)

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જવાબ : Unification of Germany:
In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.
(i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.

(ii) In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an All German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor.

(iii) The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’.

(iv) Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.

(v) Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailes and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.


Explain the process of unification of Italy. (2015 D, 2013 D, 2012 OD)

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જવાબ : Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over dynastic states and the multinationals Hamsburg Empire. Italy was divided into seven states. Italian language did not have one common form.
Guiseppe Mazzini had played an important role in the unification of Italy. He formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles, to spread his goals. He believed Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and had to be forged into a single unified republic. During 1830s, Mazzini sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. As uprisings in 1831 and 1848 had failed, the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler Emmanuel II to unify Italy.

Under Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. He was the chief minister, who led the movement to unify Italy. He formed a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces. Even Guiseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched towards South Italy and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, and with the help of the local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as King of United Italy.


How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse. (2016 D)

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જવાબ : Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation.

In France, she was named Marianne —a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as the German oak stands for heroism. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and Republic —the red cap, the tricolour and cockade.


How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain. (2015 OD, 2013 OD)
Or
Describe the role of culture in shaping the feelings of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of 19th century.

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જવાબ : Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
(i) Culture. Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.

(ii) Language. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.

(iii) Music and Dance. Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people —das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.


Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe. (2015 D)

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જવાબ :

  • The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch.
  • When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.
French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:

  1. The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  2. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  3. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  4. Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  5. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
  6. They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.


Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe. (2014 OD)

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જવાબ : In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capital.

  1. But in the 19th century Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
  2. A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg had to pass through 11 custom barriers and pay 5% duty at each one of them.
  3. As each region had its own system of weights and measures this involved time-consuming calculations.
    Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic growth and exchange by the new commercial classes who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing free movement of goods, people and capital.


How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain. (2014 D)

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જવાબ : The reactions of the local population to the French rule were mixed.

Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. As new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom, enthusiasm turned into hostility. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies to conquer the rest of Europe, outweighed the advantages of the administrative changes.


Explain any three causes of conflict in the ‘Balkan area’ after 1871. (2011 OD)

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જવાબ : The nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to the following reasons:
(i) Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as the Slavs. A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire.

(ii) After the decline of the Ottoman empire and the growth of romantic nationalism in the Balkans, the region became very explosive. Its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.

(iii) As the different nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.

(iv) Balkan also became the scene of big power rivalry. Russia, Germany, England, Austria, Hungry — all big powers were keen in countering the hold of other powers. This ultimately turned Balkan into a war region which eventually provided a minor cause for the First World War.


Describe any three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered. (2011 D)

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જવાબ : Three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered were:

  1. The Napoleonic Code —It finished all the privileges based on birth and established equality before law and secured the right to property.
  2. He simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  3. He introduced uniform laws, standardized weights and measures and common national currency to facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one place to another.


Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe. (2011 OD)

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જવાબ : The year following 1815, was the period of revolutionaries. Most of the revolutionaries were committed to oppose monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom

One such prominent revolutionary was “Giuseppe Mazzini”, an Italian revolutionary. Mazzini also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part in the struggle for freedom. Ele strongly believed in the unification of Italy as a single unified republic which could be the basis of Italian liberty.

Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of a democratic republic frightened the Conservatives. His ideas also influenced the revolutionaries of Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.


Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries. (2011 OD)

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જવાબ : The three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in 18th and 19th centuries in Poland:
(i) Emphasis on vernacular language. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. The use of the Polish language came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. For example, In Poland, following armed rebellion against Russian rule, Polish was used for church gatherings and religious instruction. As a result, a number of priests and bishops were put in jails or sent to Siberia as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.

(ii) Emphasis on collection of local folklore. It was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to the large audience who were mostly illiterate.

(iii) Use of music to keep the nationalist feeling alive. For example, Karol Kurpinski, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.


Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification. (2011 D)

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જવાબ : Contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification. Nationalist feelings started spreading amongst the middle class Germans, who in 1848, tried to unite different parts of German confederation into a nation state to have an elected parliamentarian government. However, this liberal movement was repressed by the combined forces of monarchy and military supported by Prussian landowners.

Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, took the responsibility of national unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy. Under his leadership he fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification of Germany was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.


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1

French Revolution

A

individual freedom and equality before law

2

 Liberalism

B

ensured right to property for the privileged class

3

 Napoleonic Code

C

 transfer of sovereignty from monarch to the French citizens

4

The Treaty of Vienna

D

brought the conservative regimes back to power

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

1

Treaty of Constantinople

A

cultural movement

2

Junkers

B

recognised Greece as an independent nation

3

Romanticism

C

strong devotion for one’s own country and its history and culture

4

Nationalism

D

Large landowners

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

Utopian Society

A

Napoleonic Code

2

Plebiscite

B

a society that is unlikely to ever exist and a society under the control of a chosen few wise men

3

The French Revolution

C

a direct vote by which all the citizens of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

4

The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as

D

The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

The liberal nationalism

A

freedom for the individual and equality before law.

2

Giuseppe Mazzini

B

Universal Suffrage

3

 the right to vote for all adults.

C

formed the secret society called ‘Young Italy’

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જવાબ :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

The Treaty of recognized Greece
as an independent nation:

A

played the leading role in the unification of Germany

2

Duke Metternich

B

Prussian victory

3

Otto Von Bismarck (Prussian Chief Minister)

C

‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’

4

Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, Germany and France, ended in

D

Constantinople 1832

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

Kaiser William I of Prussia

A

responsible for the unification of Germany

2

Victor Emmanuel II

B

A large part of Balkan region was under the control of

3

Bismarck

C

became the King of United Italy in 1861

4

Ottoman empire

D

proclaimed the emperor of Germany in 1871

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

The Civil Code of 1804

A

Absolutism

2

Germania

B

French artist

3

Frederic Sorrieu

C

the allegory of the German nation.

4

Unrestricted, despotic and authoritarian monarchial system of rule or government

D

Napoleonic Code

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

1

Nation

A

reforms incorporated in administration to make the syStem more rational and efficient.

2

a nation-state

B

A body of people who are united by same past, culture, political system and common interests

3

Plebiscite

C

one in which people and rulers of land came together to develop a sense of common identity and shared history

4

Napoleonic Code

D

a system of direct vote by which the people of a region, themselves decide to accept or reject a proposal.

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

 the main aim of the revolutionaries of Europe

A

the most dangerous enemy of the social order.

 

2

Mazzini described by Mettemich

B

glorification of reason and science.

3

 Romantic artists and poets criticise

C

opposing the monarchial order established after the Vienna Congress and struggle for liberty and freedom

4

das volk

D

German word meaning common people.

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

1

the provinces under the Habsburg Empire.

A

freedom for individual and equality of all before the law.

2

two Italian-speaking provinces of the Habsburg Empire.

B

Austria- Hungary

3

Liberalism for the new middle classes

C

the right to vote.

4

Suffrage

D

 Lombardy and Venetia.

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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