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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

What was the Rowlatt Act? (2011 OD)

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જવાબ : Rowlatt Act gave the government enormous powers to suppress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. In other words, the Act proposed no appeal, no vakil and no daleel.


Why was the Rowlatt Act imposed? (2011 D)

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જવાબ : The imposing of the Rowlatt Act authorized the government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law.


In which session of the Indian National Congress was the demand for ‘Puma Swaraj’ formalized? (2012 D)

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જવાબ : Lahore Session, December 1929.


What combination of colours was there in the ‘Swaraj flag’ designed by Gandhiji in 1921? (2012 OD)

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જવાબ : Red, Green and White.


Why was the Khilafat movement started? (2012 OD)

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જવાબ : Khilafat movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi and the Ali Brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali in response to the harsh treatment given to the Caliph of Ottoman empire and the dismemberment of the Ottoman empire by the British.


Who created the first image of Bharat Mata? (2012 D)

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જવાબ : Abanindranath Tagore


Who composed ‘Vande Mataram’? (2012 D)

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જવાબ : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay


Which Act did not permit plantation workers to leave the tea garden without permission?

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જવાબ : Inland Emigration Act of 1859.


What was the main reason to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement? (2013 OD)

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જવાબ : Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation Movement as the movement had turned violent in many places. The Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 turned into a violent dash and 22 policemen were killed. Gandhiji felt satyagrahis were not ready for mass struggles.


Name two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organized by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917. (2013 D)

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જવાબ : 1.    Indigo Planters Movement in Champaran, Bihar in 1916.
2.    Peasants Satyagraha Movement was organized in Kheda district in Gujarat in 1917 to support peasants in the demand for relaxation of revenue collection.


In which year and place did Mahatma Gandhi organise Satyagraha for the first time in India? (2014 D)

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જવાબ : In 1916, in Champaran, Bihar.


In which novel was the hymn ‘Vande Mataram’ included and who was the novel written by? (2014 OD)

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જવાબ : Novel—Aandamath
Author — Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.


Who is the author of the famous book ‘Hind Swaraj’? (2014 D)
 

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જવાબ : Mahatma Gandhi.


When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa ?

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જવાબ : January 1915 


when Gandhiji launched satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act
 

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જવાબ : 1919 


When was Jallianwala Bagh incident happend?

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જવાબ : 13 April 1919


Khilafat Committee formed

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જવાબ : March 1919


Gandhiji convinced Congress for a non-cooperation movement

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જવાબ : September 1920


Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began

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જવાબ : January 1921


Non-Cooperation program was adopted by Congress in Nagpur

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જવાબ : December 1920


Trace the reason because of which Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919.

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જવાબ : To protest against Rowlatt act


What were the demands of the peasants of Kheda?

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જવાબ : The peasants of Kheda were demanding that revenue collection should be relaxed.


Oudh Kinas Sabah 6 January 1921 Police firing at peasants in Rae Bareli

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જવાબ : October 1920


The militant guerrilla movement spread in Guide Hills, Andhra Pradesh

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જવાબ : 1920


Chari Chakra violence

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જવાબ : 1922


Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement

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જવાબ : 11 February 1922


“Go Back Simon” movement

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જવાબ : 1928


First Round Table Conference

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જવાબ : Nov 1930 -Jan 1931


Second Round Table Conference

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જવાબ : Sept-Dec 1931


Third Round Table Conference

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જવાબ : Nov -Dec 1932


The “Purina Sara” was formalized

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જવાબ : December 1929


Declared to be celebrated as the Independence Day but got very little attention

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જવાબ : 26 January 1930


Gandhi sent a letter of Viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands

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જવાબ : 31 January 1930


Salt March or Dandy March or Dandy Satyagraha or Civil Disobedience Movement started

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જવાબ : 12 March 1930


Salt March ended

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જવાબ : 6 April 1930


Abdul Gaffer Khan got arrested

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જવાબ : April 1930


Mahatma Gandhi got arrested

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જવાબ : May 1930


Gandhi-Irwin Pact

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જવાબ : 5 March 1931


Braga Singh, Raj guru and Sukhdev were sentenced to death

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જવાબ : 23 March 1931


Gandhi went to London for a conference but returned disappointed

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જવાબ : December 1931


Poona Pact

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જવાબ : 26 September 1932


Civil Disobedience Movement started again

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જવાબ : Jan 1932


Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress

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જવાબ : 1920


Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI)

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જવાબ : 1927


Muslim League established

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જવાબ : 1906


Death of Lala Lajpat Rai

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જવાબ : 1928


Kakori Train Conspiracy Case

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જવાબ : August 1925


Quit India movement launched

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જવાબ : 8 August 1942


The government of India Act

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જવાબ : 1935


What do you mean by forced recruitment?

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જવાબ : Forced recruitment is a process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army.


Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of the ‘Swaraj Flag’.

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જવાબ : By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag. The main features of this flag were as follows.

  • It was a tricolour (saffron, green and white).
  • It had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.


‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’ Support the statement with examples.

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જવાબ : The Civil Disobedience Movement differed from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the following ways.


What type of flag was designed during the Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.

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જવાબ :

  • During the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.Nationalism in India 39
  • It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India.
  • It also had a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.


‘The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.’ Support the statement with arguments.

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જવાબ : The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. This statement can be supported by the following arguments.

  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and to retain a link with the native village.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers left the plantations and headed home.
  • They believed that Gandhi Raj meant that they would be given land in their own villages.
    However, due to steamer and railway strike, thousands were stranded on the way.


Why did different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain.

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જવાબ : Different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement. Three of them are listed below.

  • Rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh – joined the movement because, being producers of commercial crops, they were hard-hit by depression and falling prices. For them, Swaraj meant struggle against high revenues.
  • Poor peasants joined the struggle because they found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to be remitted.
  • Rich business classes were against colonial policies which restricted trade. They joined the movement because they wanted protection against import of foreign goods. They thought that Swaraj would cancel colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without constraints.


Simon Commission was greeted with slogan ‘Go Back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments

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જવાબ :

  • Simon Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. The Commission tjid not have a single Indian member. They were all British. According to Indians, the commission did not hold any hopes for further constitutional reforms.
  • Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go Back Simon’ and black flags.
  • All parties including the Congress and Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.


Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919? How was it organized?

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જવાબ : Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919 because of the following reasons.

  • In 1919, Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • Indian members unitedly opposed it.
  • The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • The Act deprived the Indians of their civil rights.
    It was organised in the following ways:
  • Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
  • It started with hartal on 6th April 1919.
  • Rallies were organised in various cities in India.
  • Workers in the railway work shop went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest.


Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.

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જવાબ : Mahatma Gandhi found in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  • On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, stating eleven demands. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax.
  • Salt is consumed by all sections of the society, by the rich and the poor alike.
  • It is one of the most essential items of food.
  • Mahatma Gandhi declared that tax on salt and government monopoly
    over its production was the most oppressive step taken by the British government.
  • Mahatma Gandhi choose salt because all sections of the society could identify with it and everyone could be brought into a united struggle.


How did variety of cultural processes play an important role in making nationalismin India. Explain with examples.

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જવાબ : Variety of cultural processes played an important role in making of nationalism , in India in the following ways:

  • The sense of collective belonging inculcated the spirit of nationalism among the people. History and fiction, folklore and songs and popular prints and symbols played an important part in the making of nationalism.
  • Bharat mata as identity of the nation: In the twentieth century, various images of Bharat mata, came to light. It represented India. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who had written Vande mataram as a hymn dedicated to the motherland, created the first image of Bharat mata. Abanindranath Tagore portrayed Bharat mata, as a calm, composed and spiritual figure. It was influenced by the Swadeshi movement.
  • Folklore to restore a sense of pride: Rabindranath Tagore revived folk songs, folk tales, hymns, legends and stories. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a collection of Tamil folktales the Folklore of southern India.
  • Flags as identity of the Nation: During the Swadeshi Movement flags were carried to create a sense of national belonging. Carrying the flag and holding it aloft during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  • Reinterpretation of History: Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history. Many Indians wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times, when art and architecture, mathematics and science flourished. They urged the readers to take pride in their glorious past.


Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

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જવાબ : Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement because of the following reasons.

  • The British got worried by the developments of Civil Disobedience Movement ‘ and started the arrest of various top Congress leaders.
  • This led to violent clashes in many parts of the country.
  • When Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested from Peshawar, angry crowd demonstrated in the streets facing armoured cars and police firing many were killed.
  • The arrest of Gandhiji led to the attacks on police force, municipal buildings and law courts by industrial workers in Sholapur.
  • Colonial government got frightened and responded with the policy of brutal repression.
  • At many places, Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about one lakh people were arrested. It was under these circumstances, Gandhiji called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.


Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.

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જવાબ : Gandhiji relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension because of the following reasons.

  • The negotiations at the second Round Table conference in London ended in a failure.
  • Back in India, the government had again begun the cycle of repression.
  • Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were in jail.
  • Congress was declared an illegal organisation.
A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. For over a year, the movement continued, but by 1934, it lost its momentum.


How did Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.

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જવાબ : The different social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement were:

  • In the countryside, the rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh took active part in the movement. They were hard hit by trade depression and falling prices and were unable to pay the governments revenue demand. For them Swaraj meant struggle against high revenue.
  • As depression continued poor peasantry found it difficult to pay the rent. They joined a variety of radical movements often led by socialists and communists.
  • Indian merchants and industrialists resented colonial policies which restricted trade. They were against imports of foreign goods. When the civil disobedience movement was first launched, they gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported cloth. To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Some workers participated in the movement with their selective approach adopted from Gandhian ideas to protest against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers and dockyard workers. Thousands of workers in Chotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
  • Women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement in large number. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.


How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain.

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જવાબ : The Non-Cooperation Movement started in December 1920. People from various social groups participated in the movement.

  • The movement started with the participation of middle-class in the cities. Thousands of students left the government-controlled schools and colleges, teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their practice. It was to be a non¬violent movement.
  • In Awadh, peasants movement started against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and other cesses from peasants.
  • In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement started in the early 1920. It was started against the colonial government, which had closed large forest gates, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle or to collect firewood and fruits.
  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of their confined place, which was not permitted under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859.
  • In many places, nai-dobhi bandhs were organised to deprive landlords of the services of barbers and washerman.


How did the ‘First World War’ create new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples.

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જવાબ : The First World War created a new economic and political situation and posed the following problems in India.

  • It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by increasing taxes on Indians.
  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
  • Continuous price rise caused extreme hardship to the common people.
  • Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers by forced recruitment in rural areas which caused widespread anger. All this was aggravated by failure of crop and famine.
  • Between 1918 and 1921 crops failed, which further aggravated the anger.
  • Shortage of essential commodities was the natural outcome of war as industries were geared to produce goods to fulfil war needs.


How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside? Explain.

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જવાબ : Non-Cooperation Movement began in December 1920. It spread to the countryside in the following ways.

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here, the movement was against talukdars, who charged high rents and peasants had to do begar.
  • The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue and abolition of begar. By the end of 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and others had formed Oudh Kisan Sabha. So after the beginning of the Non- Cooperation.Movement, Congress wanted to integrate the *Awadh peasants struggle into a wider struggle.
  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Gandhiji and idea of swaraj in their own way. In Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement was organised against colonial oppression under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
  • The movement also spread among the plantation workers in Assam. They were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.


How did Salt March become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.

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જવાબ : Salt became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism because of the following reasons:

  • Gandhiji found in salt a powerful bond that would unite the nations as it – was consumed by all rich and poor alike.
  • Gandhiji’s letter to Viceroy Irwin stated eleven demands. Most of them were of general interest but the most stirring was to abolish the salt tax imposed by the colonial government.
  • Irwin’s unwillingness to negotiate forced Gandhiji to start his salt March which was joined by thousands. It developed the feeling of nationalism.
  • People in different parts of the country broke salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated infront of government salt factories.
  • People unitedly followed Gandhiji’s words. They refused to pay taxes, revenues, picketed liquor shops, boycotted foreign clothes, resigned from government jobs violated forest laws.


“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.

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જવાબ :

  • Congress wanted to include the demands of the masses as a whole and not a particular group or class.
  • If the demand of the workers were included, then industrialists would get offended. The industrialists were supporting the Congress financially. The Congress did not want to alienate the industrialists and create anti-imperialist feelings.
  • A big portion of the Congress membership and funding came from industrialists apd small businessmen.


Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.

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જવાબ : The Non-Cooperation Movement slowed down in the cities for various reasons.

  • Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. So people could not boycott mill cloth for very long.
  • Similarly boycotting British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative national institutions to fulfil the educational needs.
  • The students and teachers trickled to government schools. The lawyers joined government courts.
    With all these, the enthusiasm of people in the cities lost its force.


Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922? Explain the reasons.

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જવાબ : Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 because of the following reasons.

  • Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent at many places and the satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for the mass struggle.
  • Within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in the elections to the provincial councils set up after by the Government of India Act 1919.
  • The final blow however came after the violent incident in Chauri Chaura in 1922 when a violent mob burnt a police station killing many policemen. Immediately after that, Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.


Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’.

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જવાબ : At the second Round Table conference, Dr BR Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for dalits. When the British conceded Dr Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji, who was opposed to this, went on a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position by signing a pact in 1932, known as the Poona Pact. The Poona Pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in the provincial and legislative councils but they were to be voted by general electorate.


There are No Content Availble For this Chapter

1

Rowlatt Act

A

Lahore Session

2

the Indian National Congress was the demand for ‘Puma Swaraj’ formalized

B

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

3

‘Vande Mataram’

C

 the Act proposed no appeal, no vakil and no daleel.

4

 the first image of Bharat Mata

D

Abanindranath Tagore

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

1

the Khilafat movement

A

did not permit plantation workers to leave the tea garden without permission

2

Swaraj flag’ designed by

B

the dismemberment of the Ottoman empire by the British.

3

Inland Emigration Act of 1859.

C

Indigo Planters Movement in Champaran, Bihar in 1916.

4

‘Satyagraha’ movements

D

Mahatma Gandhi

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

Hind Swaraj

A

responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh incident.

2

Vande Mataram

B

Mahatma Gandhi.

3

Mahatma Gandhi return to India

C

Novel—Aandamath

4

General Dyer.

D

January, 1915

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

Lion of Punjab

A

Lala Lajpat Rai

2

Gandhiji was born in

B

1919

3

Rowlatt Act

C

1869

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જવાબ :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

announced a vague offer of 'Dominion status' for India

A

the women participated large numbers for the first time

2

the Simon Commission boycotted

 

B

forced labour without payment.

3

 In Civil Disobedience Movement

C

no Indian in the commission.

4

Begar

D

Viceroy Lord Irwin

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

 In 1927

A

the Dalits referred by Gandhiji

 

2

Jallianwalla Bagh incident take place

 

B

led a Peasant Movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement

3

Harijans

C

13th April, 1919

4

Baba Ramchandra

D

the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries was set-up.

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

Alluri Sitaram Raju

A

Motilal Nehru

2

240 miles were covered in 

B

Sir Muhammad Iqbal

3

the President of Muslim League in 1930.

 

C

Gandhiji's Salt March

4

founder member of the Swaraj Party

D

the leader of millitant Guerrilla Movement in the Gudem hills

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

1

Khilafat Committee formed

A

1922

2

Gandhiji convinced Congress for a non-cooperation movement

B

March 1919

3

Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began

C

September 1920

4

Chauri Chaura violence

D

January 1921

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement

A

Nov 1930 – Jan 1931

2

“Go Back Simon” movement

B

11 February 1922

3

First Round Table Conference

C

Sept-Dec 1931

4

Second Round Table Conference

D

1928

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

“Purna Swaraj” was formalized

A

Third Round Table Conference

2

Nov – Dec 1932

B

12 March 1930

3

Civil Disobedience Movement started

C

December 1929

4

Salt March ended

D

6 April 1930

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

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