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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

Who invented the steam engine?

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જવાબ : James Watt


What was the fly shuttle used for ?

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જવાબ : Weaving


In India the first cotton mill set up in ______

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જવાબ : Bombay


When was the first cotton mill set up in India?

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જવાબ : 1854


Who devised the Spinning Jenny?

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જવાબ : James Hargreave


The paid servants of the East India Company was _________

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જવાબ : Gomastha


18th Century India witnessed the decline of which port town?

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જવાબ : Surat


First country to undergo industrial revolution is ________

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જવાબ : Britain


Give an example of a Jobber.

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જવાબ : Employed by industrialists to get new recruits


Name any one problem faced by cotton weavers in India. 

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જવાબ : They did not have good quality of cotton.


Who produced a popular music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the Dawn of the Century?

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જવાબ : E. T. Paull


Why the export of Indian yarn to China declined in 1906?

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જવાબ : Produce from the Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market.


Who was the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century, according to historians?

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જવાબ : Traditional craftsperson and labourer.


Write down any one duty of Gomasthas? 

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જવાબ : Supervising weavers.


What was Spinning Jenny? 

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જવાબ : A machine which speeded up the spinning process and reduced the labour demands.


Which industry followed the cotton industry in England?

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જવાબ : Iron and steel industry


Who worked for industrialists to get new recruits? 

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જવાબ : Jobber.


Where were most of the large scale industries located in 1911? 

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જવાબ : Bengal and Bombay.


Where was the first cotton mill set up in India? 

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જવાબ : Bombay in 1854.


Why did the industrial groups in England pressurise the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles? 

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જવાબ : To eliminate any competition from outside.


Write dates of happening of event : Flying shuttle invented

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જવાબ : 1733


Write dates of happening of event : First Jute mill established in Bengal

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જવાબ : 1855


Write dates of happening of event : Indian merchant network was breaking down

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જવાબ : 1750


Write dates of happening of event : Invention of Spinning Jenny

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જવાબ : 1764


Write dates of happening of event : First cotton mill set up in india

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જવાબ : 1854


Write dates of happening of event Earliest factor is come up in England

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જવાબ : 1730


Write dates of happening of event : The two magician published in

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જવાબ : 26 jan 1901


Write dates of happening of event : Expansion of cotton in England

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જવાબ : 1840


Write dates of happening of event : Expansion of railway in England

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જવાબ : 1860


Who was E.T. Paull ?

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જવાબ : He was a popular music publisher


Dwarkanath Tagore is a ________

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જવાબ : Industrialist


What did the term ‘Orient’ refers to?

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જવાબ : Asia


How did advertisements reach the common people?

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જવાબ : Calendars


Which among these was a pre colonial sea port?

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જવાબ : Hoogly


The first Asian country to be industrialized was  ________
 

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જવાબ : India


_______ is the first industrial city in England-

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જવાબ : London


________connected India to the gulf and red sea port in the pre-colonial period.

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જવાબ : Surat


Which one is the flourishing industry of England?

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જવાબ : Iron and steel industry


Which Indian entrepreneur set up six joint stock companies in India in 1830?

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જવાબ : Dwarka Nath Tagore


Who established the first jute mill in India?

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જવાબ : Seth Hukumchand


Who established the first jute mill in India?

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જવાબ : Seth Hukumchand


Elgin mill was set up at ______

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જવાબ : Kanpur


When was the telephone invented?

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જવાબ : 1876


Where was the first jute mill established?

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જવાબ : Culcutta


The Tata iron and steel company was formed __________

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જવાબ : 1907


The machine age in India started in ________

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જવાબ : 1850


Guilds were associations of ______

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જવાબ : Producers


Write True or False against each statement : At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
 

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જવાબ : False


Write True or False against each statement : The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.

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જવાબ : True


Write True or False against each statement : The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.

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જવાબ : False


Write True or False against each statement : The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.

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જવાબ : True


Explain with examples the importance of advertisement in the marketing of the goods.

 

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જવાબ : (i) Advertisements play a very vital role in the marketing of any product. 

(ii) New consumers are created is through advertisements.

(iii) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary to the customers.

(iv) They try to shape the minds of the people and create new needs. 

(v) The advertisement appear in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, television screens which have played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture.


What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the 19th century? Describe. (2012)

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જવાબ : The Indian cotton weavers faced many problems in the 19th century:

  1. Their export collapsed.
  2. The local market shrank being flooded by the Manchester imports. Produced by machines at lower costs, the Manchester cotton goods were so cheap that they attracted the buyers and the Indian textiles could not compete with them.
  3. By 1860, Indian weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. This happened because a Civil War had broken out in America and the cotton supplies from the US to Britain were cut off and Britain turned to India. As raw cotton export from India
    increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Indian weavers were forced to buy raw cotton at a very high price, so weaving did not remain profitable.
  4. Factories in India also produced goods at a mass scale which flooded the Indian markets. Thus the Indian weavers faced a tough time and it became difficult to survive.


Why was the reason that the merchants moved to the countryside in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Explain

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જવાબ : ​​​​​​Merchants moved to the countryside in Europe because:

  1. Production, competition and prices was regulated by the producers
  2. Different guilds were granted with the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products by the rulers
  3. Expansion of production in towns was not allowed by the powerful urban craft and trade guilds


What was the reason that in the seventeenth-century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

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જવાબ : Merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages in the seventeenth century because production in urban areas was not increasing due to the presence of powerful trade guilds. While in the countryside, there was no monopolization or regulated prices, and impoverished peasants were welcoming towards these merchants.


What were guilds? How did they make it difficult for new merchants to set business in towns of England? Explain.

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જવાબ : Guilds were the associations of artisans or merchants who controlled the practise of their craft and trade in a particular city. They were very powerful as they were granted monopoly rights by the rulers to produce and trade in specific product. They themselves trained the people in their trade or craft. They regulated competition and restricted the entry of new people in the trade. This made it difficult for the new merchants to set up their business in towns of England.


Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny. Explain

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જવાબ :

  • Women workers in Britain were surviving on the hand spinning job.
  • Spinning Jenny speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time.
  • They developed a valid fear that the new machine may take up their jobs and make them unemployed.
  • Already the cottage and poor peasants were facing economic constraints due to various reasons.
  • All these things made women workers turn violent and they started attacking Spinning Jenny.


In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages. Explain

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જવાબ :

  • The demand for goods increased with the expansion of world trade merchant needed more production.
  • The trade and commerce guilds controlled the market, raw materials, employees, and also production of goods in the towns.  So the merchants could not expand production within towns.
  • This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men.
  • Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who lived in villages.


The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century. Explain

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જવાબ :

  • By the end of the eighteenth century European companies in a trade with India gradually gained power
  • They secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade.
  • Exports from the ports like Surat felled dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and local bankers here went slowly bankrupt.
  • Gross value of trade from Surat declined from Rs.16 million at the end of the seventeenth century to Rs.3 million by 1740.
  • The old trading houses collapsed, those that wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by European trading companies.


The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India. Explain

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જવાબ : The English East India Company appointed Gomasthas for:

  • The East India company wanted to ensure regular supply of fine silk and cotton textiles.
  • To eliminate the existence of traders and brokers and establish direct control over the weavers through Gomasthas who supervised weavers, collected supplies and examined the quality of cloth.
  • To eliminate weavers from dealing with other buyers by means of advances and control. In this manner, weavers who took loans and fees in advance were obligated to the British and could not take their cloth to any other trader.
  • Thus company controlled costs and eliminated bargaining power of the weavers.
  • There were often reports of clashes between weavers and gomsthas.They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delays in the supply-often beating and flogging them.


Explain what is meant by proto-industrialization.

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જવાબ : ​​​​​​​Proto-industrialization is the phase of industrialization that was not based on the factory system. Before the coming of factories, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This part of industrial history is known as proto-industrialization. This period was marked by merchants from towns getting products made in villages. The merchants supplied money to the peasants in the countryside. The land was becoming scarce in villages. Small plots of land were not enough to meet the need for a growing population. Peasants were looking for some additional sources of income.


Who were gomasthas? Why were they appointed?

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જવાબ : The paid servants appointed by the East India Company to supervise weavers are called gomasthas.

The East India Company appointed them to establish a more direct control over the weavers and to eliminate traders and brokers connected with cloth trade.


Describe the achievements of any three early industrialists in British India. (2013)

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જવાબ : Having earned enough from trade, some businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India.
In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade. He turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint stock companies in 1830s and 1840s.

In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empires in India accumulated their initial wealth from exports to China and raw cotton shipments to England. Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman, who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1971, also traded with China.


How did many Indian Entrepreneurs survive despite of tight economic controls imposed by the British Government? (2013)

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જવાબ :

  • Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma, Middle East and East Africa and accumulated capital.
  • Certain other commercial groups operated within India by carrying goods from one place to another, banking money, transferring funds between cities and financing traders.
Many Indians became junior players in the trade with China by providing finance, procuring supplies and shipping consignments.


Explain any three factors responsible for the decline of the cotton textile industry in India in the mid-nineteenth century. (2013)

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જવાબ :

  • At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian market as well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early 19th century.
  • The export market for the Indian cotton weavers collapsed and the local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.
  • The imported cotton goods were cheap and our weavers could not compete with them.
  • When the American Civil War broke out the cotton supplies to Britain from the US were cut off. As raw cotton export from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices.
As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began to pressurize the Government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing any competition from outside.


Advertisements played a part in expanding the markets for products and in shaping a new consumer culture. Explain. (2014)

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જવાબ :

  1. When buyers saw ‘Made in Manchester’, written in bold on the label, they felt confident to buy the cloth.
  2. But labels did not carry words and texts. They carried images and were beautifully illustrated with images of Indian gods and goddesses. The printed image of Krishna or Saraswati was also intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land, appear familiar to Indians.
  3. Manufacturers also printed calendars to popularise their products. These calendars were used even by the illiterate. They were hung in tea shops and in the homes of the poor and even in offices and middle class apartments.
  4. When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation, then buy only ‘Indian’ products. Advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.
When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles, to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.


There are No Content Availble For this Chapter

1

the most dynamic industry in Britain.

A

By offering them loans for their production

2

India Company prevent the Indian weavers from dealing with other companies

B

war materials were produced in India

3

Jute bags

C

Cotton and metal industries

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B

1

Dwarkanath Tagore

A

Bombay

2

Seth Hukumchand

B

Bengal

3

Bhai Bhosle

C

Parsis of Bombay

4

Dinshaw Petit

D

Calcutta

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

Technological changes

A

Early entrepreneur of India

2

India

B

helped the production of handloom cloth

3

European companies

C

finer varieties of Coarser cotton came from

4

Seth Hukumchand

D

trade through the new ports of Bombay and Calcutta came to be controlled by

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

James Watt

A

devised the Spinning Jenny

2

Textile Industry

B

Japan

3

first industrial country in the world

C

Production processes involving carding, twisting, rolling and stapling are associated with

4

James Hargreaves

D

improved the ‘Steam Engine’ produced by Newcomen

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

1

Bombay

A

Industrialist

2

frequent strikes in Indian industries

B

problems faced by cotton weavers in India

3

Dwarkanath Tagore

C

problems was not faced by cotton weavers in India

4

Imported goods were cheap

D

the first cotton mill set up

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

The spinning jenny

A

Indian ports lost its importance during colonial rule

2

job of the Gomastha

B

the pattern of industrial change in India conditioned

3

Surat

C

Supervise weavers, Collect supplies & Examine the quality of the cloth

4

Colonial rule

D

The introduction of which new technology in England angered women

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

Surat

A

pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports

2

Elgin Mills

B

 an European Managing Agency dominating industrial production in India

3

Jardine Skinner and Co.

C

not an European Managing Agency dominating industrial production in India

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જવાબ :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

Gomasthas

A

Cotton factories

2

Richard Arkwright

B

Supervisor appointed by the company

3

E. T. Paul

C

created the cotton mill in England

4

a symbol of new era in England in the late eighteenth century      

D

produced a popular music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the Dawn of the Century

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

James Watt

A

industry finally collapsed by the end of the 19th century

2

Newcomen

B

improved the steam engine

3

Weaving

C

textile trade

4

The British totally monopolised the

D

invented the first steam engine

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

Staplers

A

A Fuller ‘fulls’ or gathers cloth by pleating

2

Fullers

B

England

3

the earliest factories come up

C

sorts wool according to its fibre

4

Carding

D

cotton or wool fibres are prepared for spinning

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

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