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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?

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જવાબ : Trade is the movement of goods and services between regions for economic gain. Trade between two or more countries is termed as international trade, while trade occurring in a region within the same country is known as local trade.


Which term is used to describe trade between two or more countries?

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જવાબ : International trade.


What is the major objective to develop Super Highways?

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જવાબ : The major objective of developing Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega-cities of India.


Why was the Haldia seaport Set-up?

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જવાબ : Haldia seaport was set-up as a subsidiary port to relieve growing pressure on Kolkata port.


What are considered first-class mail by the Indian postal network?

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જવાબ : Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail.


Which is the deepest landlocked and well protected port?

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જવાબ : Visakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well protected port.


Why was Jawaharlal Nehru port developed?

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જવાબ : To decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for the region.


What is a new arrival on the transportation map of India?

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જવાબ : Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India to transport liquids as well as solids in slurry form.


What is known as lifelines of the national economy?

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જવાબ : Means of transport and communication.


What is the significance of ‘Border Roads’? Explain.

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જવાબ : • Border road organization was established in 1960.  • This organization develops the roads of strategic importance in the North and the East border areas.  • These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.  • These roads have enabled the economy to develop in the border areas.


What is the importance of transport? Mention the various means of transport available in India.

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જવાબ : Importance of Transport:  • Connects the people.  • Sense of belonging in the people living at far places.  • Helpful for business activities.  • Helpful in the period of crisis.  Means of transport:  • Roadways  • Railways  • Pipelines  • Waterways  • Airways.


Explain any four advantages of pipeline transportation.

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જવાબ : The four advantages of pipeline transportation are:  • Both solid (when converted into slurry) liquid and gases can be transported through pipelines  • Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimum.  • Trans-shipment of losses and delays are minimum.  • It is economical to transport petroleum, natural gas, fertilizers to interior places.


Elaborate any three advantages of railways in India.

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જવાબ : Advantages of railways in India are:  • The road transport is cheaper than railway transport. • It is suitable because it carries goods to other destination without re-handling any through the quickest route. It can provide door to door service.  • Road transport is more flexible than railways as it has no fixed route or time.


What are Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways? Mention any two objectives of this project. The North-South and East-West Corridors join which terminal cities.

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જવાબ : • The Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways is a major road development project linking Delhi – Kolkata – Chennai – Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane superhighways.  • The two major objectives of these Super Highways projects are to reduce the time and distance between the megacities of India.  • The North-South Corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat).


Describe the rural roads in India?

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જવાબ : • Rural roads link ruler areas and villages with towns.  • These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna.  • Special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.


Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?

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જવાબ : Pipeline


Terminal stations of East-West corridor ____________

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જવાબ : Silcher and Porbandar


AIR stands for __________

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જવાબ : All India Radio


When and where the first train was travelled?

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જવાબ : 1853, Mumbai to Thane


Which is the longest National Highway of India?

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જવાબ : NH7, Varanasi to Kanniyakumari


Name the roads which help military.

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જવાબ : Boarder Roads


Name the Inland Riverine Port of India.

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જવાબ : Kolkata


Name the deepest and land locked port of India.

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જવાબ : Vishakhapatnam


What is the density of roads in Jammu and Kashmir?

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જવાબ : 10km


Which port caters to the need for export of Iron ore from Kudermukh mines?

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જવાબ : New Mangalore


In which states special provision have been made to extend air services to common people?

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જવાબ : North-eastern states


Where is the head quarter of the southern Railway Zone?

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જવાબ : Chennai


How much is the length of coastline of India?

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જવાબ : 7516.6 km


Name the language in which the largest numbers of newspapers are published in India?

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જવાબ : Hindi


Which is first port to be developed just after independence?

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જવાબ : Kandla Port


What is India’s position among the best tourist destinations of the world?

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જવાબ : Forth


Name any two airlines that provide domestic air services.

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જવાબ : Indian Airlines and Alliance Air


Name the oldest artificial port and second most important port of the country?

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જવાબ : Chennai port


Which mean of transportation carried 95 percent of India’s trade volume?

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જવાબ : Water ways


Which mean of transport is a new arrival on the map of India?

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જવાબ : Pipeline


Which is the longest National Highway of India?

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જવાબ : National Highway-1


Name the extreme cities which are connected by East-west Corridors?

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જવાબ : Silcher( Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat).


Which department is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the District Roads?

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જવાબ : Zila Parishad


Six Lane Highways are called __________

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જવાબ : Golden quadrilateral super highways


Golden quadrilateral super highways are maintained by __________

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જવાબ : NHAI


Villages are connected to a major town through this scheme of roads __________

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જવાબ : PMGSY


Border Roads are constructed by ________

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જવાબ : BRO


Bulk carrier within India ____________

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જવાબ : Railways


Bulk carrier across nations __________

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જવાબ : Waterways


Provides door-to-door connectivity _____________

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જવાબ : Roadways


Largest producer of feature film in the world __________

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જવાબ : India


Biggest natural port in India ___________

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જવાબ : Mumbai


Natural harbour in India ______________

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જવાબ : Mumbai


Width of two tracks of Broad Gauge is ___________

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જવાબ : 1.676 m


Principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India ___________

 
 
 
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જવાબ : Railways


Where is Konkan Railway Line developed in India and what problems are faced by it?

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જવાબ : Konkan Railway Line is developed along the western coast of India through the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. This railway line has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India.
Problems faced during its construction:

  • Sinking of track in some stretches.
  • Landslides were another hinderance.


Describe the distribution of railway network in India.

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જવાબ :

  1. The Indian railways have a network of 7,031 stations spread over the country.
  2. The route length is 63,221 kms.
  3. It has a fleet of 7,817 locomotives.
  4. There are 5,321 passenger service vehicles.
  5. The number of coach vehicles is 4904.
  6. We have 2,28,170 wagons which run on the total rail track of 1,08,486 kms.


Railways play an important role in Indian economy. Give supportive arguments.

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જવાબ :

  1. Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India, as they link different parts of the country.
  2. They carry huge loads and bulky goods to long distances.
  3. Railways make it possible to conduct multiple activities like business, tourism, pilgrimage along with goods transportation over longer distances.
  4. Railways have been a great integrating force for the nation, for more than 150 years now.
  5. They have been helpful in binding the economic life of the country and also promoted cultural fusion.
  6. They have accelerated the development of the industry and agriculture.


Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with examples. (2014 OD)

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જવાબ :

  1. Distribution of roads is not uniform in India due to different types of geographical features.
  2. Moreover, the volume of traffic as well as passengers also affects road networking in India. Roads are highly congested in cities. Most of the bridges and culverts have become narrow, old and broken.
  3. Some roads are metalled, that is well built with brick and cement and about half of the roads are unmetalled specially in rural areas which makes them unaccessible during rainy seasons.
  4. The regions with rugged terrain have steep roads with lots of hairpin bends.


What are the problems faced by road transportation in India? (2013 D)

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જવાબ : Problems faced by road transportation:

  1. The road network is inadequate in proportion to the volume of traffic and passengers.
  2. About half of the roads are unmetalled which makes them useless during rainy season.
  3. The National Highways are inadequate and lack roadside amenities.
  4. The roadways are highly congested in cities.
  5. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.


Define ‘road density’. What is the average road density in India? Name the states having the highest and lowest densities respectively. What is the main reason for this difference in their densities? (2013 D)

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જવાબ : Road density is defined as the length of road per 100 sq km, of area.
Average road density of India is 75 kms / 100 sq kms of area (1996-97).
Highest road density is in Kerala — It is 375 km / 100 sq kms.
Least road density is in Jammu & Kashmir—It is 10 km / 100 sq kms.
In Jammu & Kashmir, road density is less because of mountainous terrain, whereas Kerala has levelled nature of land coupled with agricultural development which supports a lot of population, therefore road density is higher.


List four factors which favoured the development of dense network of railways in the northern plains. (2012 OD)

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જવાબ : Four reasons for dense network of railways in northern plains are:

  1. The vast level land provided the most favourable conditions for their growth. It is cheaper and easier to construct railway tracks here.
  2. The agricultural and industrial development in this region necessitated the development of railway lines.
  3. High population density in this region further required the development of railway lines.
  4. Resources such as iron and steel, fuels, etc., required for the development of railways are available in abundance in the northern plains.


What are ‘Border Roads’? What is their significance?

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જવાબ :

  1. Border roads run along the land frontiers of our country in the northern and north-eastern border areas.
  2. The Border Road Organisation (BRO) — a department of the Central Government was established in 1960 for the development of border roads.
  3. Their construction and maintenance is the responsibility of the Central Government.
Importance of Border Roads:

  1. These roads are of strategic importance.
  2. They have increased the accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.
  3. They are the supply lines for our jawans (soldiers) who guard our land frontiers.


Differentiate between District Roads and Other Rural Roads?

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જવાબ : District Roads:

  • District Roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
  • These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
Other Rural Roads:

  • Rural roads which link rural areas and villages with towns come under this category.
  • These roads received special impetus under the ‘Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna’. Under this scheme, special provisions are made so that every village is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.


Write the characteristics of Super Highways, National Highways and State Highways.

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જવાબ : Super Highways:

  1. These are 6-lane roads built by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) under the Road Development Project launched by the government.
  2. The major objective of these roads is to reduce time and distance between the mega cities of India, especially the Golden Quadrilateral, which links Mumbai-Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai.
  3. Other important roads developed by NHAI are:
    • North-South Corridor linking Srinagar in the North and Kanyakumari in the South and
    • East-West Corridor linking Porbander in Gujarat to Silcher in Assam.
National Highways:

  1. These are the primary’ road systems which run in the North-South and East-West directions connecting all the states and link extreme parts of the country.
  2. These roads are laid and maintained by the Central Government, i.e., Central Public Works Department (CPWD) as they are of national importance.
  3. The historical Shershah Suri Marg, now called National Highway No. 1, links Delhi and Amritsar and the longest highway in the country is National Highway No. 7 which links Varanasi and Kanyakumari.
State Highways:

  1. Roads linking state capitals with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
  2. These roads are constructed and maintained by State Public Works Department (PWD) in states and union territories.
  3. The expenditure or cost and maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of the respective state governments.


Analyse the physiographic and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the railway network in our country. (2015 D)

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જવાબ : Factors that affect the distribution pattern of railway network in India:
(i) Physiographic factors. The Northern plains with vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide most favourable conditions for railway network. The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the region determine the density of railway network in that region. Mountains, marshy, sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways. It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat and forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Economic factors. Regions which have rich resources and are economically more developed have denser network of railways in comparison to the regions with low economic development.

(iii) Administrative factors. The administrative and political decisions also affect the distribution of railway network in a region.


Which factors affect the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country?

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જવાબ : Factors that affect the distribution pattern of railway network in India:

  1. Physical factors: The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the region will determine the density of railway network in that region.
    For example, mountains, marshy, sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways.
  2. Economic factors: Regions which have rich resources and are economically more developed have denser network of railways in comparison to the regions with low economic development.
  3. Administrative factors: The administrative and political decisions also affect the distribution of railway network in a region.


Why is road transport more useful than rail transport in India. Give reasons. (2016 OD, 2013 D)

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જવાબ : Roadways score over railways:

  1. Construction of roads is easier and cheaper as compared to railways.
  2. Roads provide door to door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower as compared to railways which generally leave the people and goods at the destined railway stations.
  3. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope and, as such, can traverse through mountainous terrain. But railways cannot negotiate steep gradients.
  4. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
  5. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport. They provide links between railway stations, airports and sea ports.
  6. They link agricultural farms with markets and industries, thus linking rural and urban areas.


Name three means of land transport and write one advantage of each.

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જવાબ : Three means of land transport:

  1. Roadways. They can be laid in any type of terrain and provide door to door service.
  2. Railways. They can carry huge loads to long distances, therefore they are of great significance in the national economy.
  3. Pipelines. These can be used for transporting liquid, gaseous and solid material to great distances at low cost.


Examine with examples the role of means of transport and communication in making our life prosperous and comfortable.

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જવાબ : Transport and communication have a major role to play in making our lives prosperous and comfortable:

  1. Means of transport provide seamless movement of goods and people and thus facilitate various economic activities.
  2. Means of communication help in flow of information which is necessary for proper management of supply chain and financial transactions. Today, we are living in the age of communication, using telephone, television, films and Internet. Even books, magazines and newspapers are important means of communication.
  3. Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances, bringing the world closer. Modern life is so complex that one has to depend on others. The same is true of the countries as well. No country today can prosper without the co-operation and assistance of others. This requires movement of goods and materials between countries. Trade provides us with our necessities and also adds to the amenities and comfort of our life.
  4. Transport like railways help us in conducting various activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimage and transportation of goods over longer distances.
  5. Water provide the cheapest means of transport and is useful for international trade. Air transport provides the fastest, most comfortable mode of transport. Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories.
    Thus, means of transport and communication put life into a nation and its economy. Hence, they are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy.


How are means of transport and communication complementary to each other? Explain with three examples. (2013 OD)

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જવાબ :

  1. Transport and communication establish links between producing centres and consuming centres. Trade or the exchange of such commodities relies on transportation and communication. Transport provides the network of links and carriers through which trade takes place.
  2. Dense network of roads, railways and airways connect the remote areas of the country hence help in production and distribution of goods and services.
  3. Advancement in communication system has accelerated trade by carrying information all over the world quickly.
  4. Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw material from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
  5. With expansion of rail, ocean and air transport, better means of refrigeration and preservation, trade has experienced spatial expansion.


Why do the movement of goods and services form one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport? Explain with examples.

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જવાબ : Transport plays an important role in the economy. Because of transport raw materials reach the factory and finished products reach to the consumer. The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Today the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport:

  1. Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw materials from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
  2. Transport helps in the development of communication. Various means of communication help us in interacting with other people in all the parts of the world. It has brought the world closer.
  3. Transport like railways helps us in conducting various activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimages, etc.
  4. Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories.
  5. Water provides the cheapest means of transport and is useful for international trade.
  6. Air transport provides the fastest, most comfortable mode of transport.
  7. Thus, it is clear that there are many advantages of transportation and communication. These means help in the development of the country. So they are rightly called the lifelines of a nation and its economy.


“Modern means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation.” Justify this statement by giving supportive arguments.
Or
“Efficient means of transport are prerequisites for the fast development of the country.” Express your views in favour of this statement. (2016 D, 2014 OD)

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જવાબ : India is well linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size and diversities because of efficient means of transport and communication. They are rightly called the lifelines or arteries of a nation because:

  1. Economic development of a country depends on the well developed and efficient means of transport and communication.
  2. They are indispensable for movement of people, goods and services from one place to another.
  3. They have contributed to socio-economic progress in many ways by connecting far flung areas of the country.
  4. They have enriched all aspects of our lives — social, cultural, individual and economic.
  5. They promote trade, tourism and business thus adding value to the economy.
  6. Transport and communication have made possible international trade which is essential for every economy as no country is self-sufficient in all resources.
  7. They link areas of production with consumption, i.e. agricultural farms are linked to the markets and industries.
  8. They help in the balanced regional development of a country.
  9. They play a very important role at the time of natural calamities, i.e., for providing relief measures.
  10. Deficient areas can obtain resources from the regions of surplus, thereby making the interdependence among the regions possible.
  11. They have added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.


Today the world has become a “global village”. Justify this statement.

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જવાબ : Today the world has become a “large village” because of:

  1. efficient and fast means of transport and
  2. development of telecommunication and satellite communication systems.
These two functions, i.e. various means of transport and communication have reduced time and distance, have brought the world closer and the physical distances have become meaningless. For example, now trading from local levels has been extended to the international level and even financial transactions can take place round the world in no time. All this has been made possible because of efficient and quick means of transport and communication.


Why is transportation necessary?

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જવાબ : Transportation is necessary:

  1. for the movement of goods and services from their supply location to demand location, i.e. to link production centres with consumption centres.
  2. for the movement of people from one region to the other.
  3. for carrying out trade at all levels.
  4. to supply goods, resources, etc. from the surplus regions to deficient regions.
  5. for supplying relief measures to the regions where some natural calamities strike.
  6. for transporting raw materials from mining regions and farms to the industries, etc.
    Efficient means of transport are the prerequisites for economic development of a nation.


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Ending Points and NHs

1

NH 2

A

Delhi

2

NH 8

B

Kochi

3

NH 17

C

Dankuni

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B

Starting Points and NHs

1

NH 2

A

Panvel

2

NH 8

B

Delhi

3

NH 17

C

Mumbai

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-A

Ending Points and NHs

1

NH 4

A

Samakhiali

2

NH 3

B

Chennai

3

NH 31

C

Mumbai

4

NH 15

D

Guwahati

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

Ending Points and NHs

1

NH 44

A

Samakhiali

2

NH 6

B

Chennai

3

NH 5

C

Kolkata

4

NH 15

D

Kanyakumari

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

Starting Points and NHs

1

NH 44

A

Cuttack

2

NH 6

B

Pathankot

3

NH 5

C

Hajira

4

NH 15

D

Varanasi

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

Starting Points and NHs

1

NH 4

A

Barhi

2

NH 3

B

Mumbai

3

NH 31

C

Agra

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-A

International Airports

1

Varanasi

A

Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport

2

Kolkata

B

Cochin International Airport

3

Kochi

C

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport

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જવાબ :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

International Airports

1

Nagpur

A

Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport

2

Shillong

B

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport

3

Coimbatore

C

Zaruki International Airport

4

Lucknow

D

Civil Aerodrome

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

International Airports

1

Bhopal

A

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

2

Amritsar

B

Raja Bhoj Airport

3

Hydrabad

C

Trivandrum International Airport

4

Thiruvananthapuram

D

Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

International Airports

1

Delhi

A

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport

2

Mumbai

B

Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport

3

Indore

C

Indira Gandhi International Airport

4

Bengluru

D

Kempegowda International Airport

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

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Lifelines of National Economy

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