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CBSE Solutions for Class 10 English

GSEB std 10 science solution for Gujarati check Subject Chapters Wise::

Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Tehri Dam

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જવાબ : Bhagirathi


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Bhakra Nangal Dam

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જવાબ : Sutlej


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Hirakud dam

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જવાબ : Mahanadi


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

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જવાબ : Krishna
 


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Sardar Sarovar Dam
 

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જવાબ : Narmada


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Indira Sagar Dam
 

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જવાબ : Narmada


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Cheruthoni Dam

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જવાબ : Cheruthoni


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Krishnarajasagar Dam
 

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જવાબ : Kaveri
 


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Mettur Dam

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જવાબ : Kaveri


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Bisalpur Dam
 

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જવાબ : Banas


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Maithon Dam

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જવાબ : Barakar


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Koyna Dam

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જવાબ : Koyna


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Tungabhadra Dam

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જવાબ : Tungabhadra


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Rihand Dam

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જવાબ : Rihand


Name the river on which dam is constructed :- Bhavani Sagar dam

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જવાબ : Bhavani


Name the state of the Dams :- Tehri Dam

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જવાબ : Uttarakhand


Name the state of the Dams :- Bhakra Nangal Dam

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જવાબ : Punjab-Himachal Pradesh Border


Name the state of the Dams :- Hirakud dam

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જવાબ : Odisha


Name the state of the Dams :- Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

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જવાબ : Telangana


Name the state of the Dams :- Sardar Sarovar Dam

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જવાબ : Gujarat


Name the state of the Dams :- Cheruthoni Dam

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જવાબ : Kerala


Name the state of the Dams :- Indira Sagar Dam

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જવાબ : Madhya Pradesh


Name the state of the Dams :- Krishnarajasagar Dam 

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જવાબ : Karnataka


Name the state of the Dams :- Mettur Dam 

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જવાબ : Tamil Nadu


Name the state of the Dams :- Bisalpur Dam 

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જવાબ : Rajasthan


Name the state of the Dams :- Koyna Dam 

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જવાબ : Maharashtra


Name the state of the Dams :- Maithon Dam

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જવાબ : Jharkhand


Name the state of the Dams :- Rihand Dam

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જવાબ : Uttar Pradesh


Name the state of the Dams :- Tungabhadra Dam

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જવાબ : Karnataka


Name the state of the Dams :- Bhavani Sagar dam

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જવાબ : Tamil Nadu


Name the river on which Mettur dam has been built.
 

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જવાબ : Mettur dam has been built the Kaveri.
Name the state of the Dams


Name the river on which Nagarjunsagar dam is constructed.

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જવાબ : The Nagarjunsagar Dam is built on the Krishna.


Name the river on which Sardar Sarovar dam is built.

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જવાબ : Sardar Sarovar dam is built on the Narmada.


What is the traditional system of rainwater harvesting?

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જવાબ : The traditional system of rainwater harvesting is to build underground tanks or
tankas for storing drinking water. This system is mainly practised in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan.


On which river is the Nagarjunsagar dam built?

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જવાબ : The Nagarjunsagar Dam is built on the Krishna.


What is the need of rainwater harvesting?
 

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જવાબ : Rainwater harvesting is needed to provide it for agriculture, collect drinking water, irrigate the fields and to moisten the soil.


Name two techniques of rooftop rainwater harvesting.

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જવાબ : •     Construction of tanks so as to store the rainwater
•    Collection of excess rainwater in the dugwell


What was the main purpose of launching multi-purpose projects in India after
independence?
 

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જવાબ : The main purpose of launching multi-purpose projects after independence was that they would integrate development of agriculture with rapid industrialization.


Explain how water become a renewable resources?

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જવાબ : Water cycle continues through the steps of evaporation, condensation and Precipitation. Thus, it become a renewable resources.


What does the Qualitative scarcity of water mean?

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જવાબ : Qualitative scarcity of water means bad Quality of water due to industrial waste and impurities due to chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture which makes water hazardous for human use.


Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the dams as the “temples of modern India”? Explain any three reasons.

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જવાબ : Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the dams as the “temples of modern India” because:
• It would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy.
• Provide hydroelectricity for houses and industries.
• They eliminate or reduce flooding.


Mention any four main objectives of multipurpose river valley projects. Name any two Multipurpose Projects of India.

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જવાબ : Four main objectives of multipurpose river valley projects are-
• For irrigational activities.
• To generate hydroelectricity.
• To control flood.
• For recreation
Two multipurpose projects are Bhakhra nagal project and Hirakud project.


What is Dam?

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જવાબ : A dam is a barrier across flowing water.


On which river has the Hirakud Dam been constructed? 
 

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જવાબ : River Mahanadi.


On which river ‘Bhakhra Nangal Dam’ has been constructed?

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જવાબ : River Satluj.


Which river is known as the ‘River of Sorrow’?

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જવાબ : Damodar River.


Name any one river valley project which has significantly contributed to the loss of forest?

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જવાબ : Sardar Sarovar Dam2.


Name two Environmental movements which were against the multi-purpose projects.

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જવાબ : Narmada Bachao Andolan and Tehri Dam Andolan.


Who proclaimed dams as the temple of modern India?

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જવાબ : Jawaharlal Nehru.


What percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans?

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જવાબ : 96.5%


Write the main causes of water pollution.

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જવાબ : Water gets polluted by:

  1. Domestic wastes, especially urban sewers.
  2. Industrial wastes are disposed off in the water without proper treatment.
  3. Chemical effluents from industries and from agricultural sector.
  4. Pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture may get washed into rivers by rain-water and may pollute the water by enriching it with minerals.
  5. Many human activities, e.g., religious rituals and immersing of idols, etc. in the water also pollute water.


Give a brief description of the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’.

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જવાબ : Narmada Bachao Andolan or Save Narmada Movement is an NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation) that mobilised tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat.

  • The movement originally focussed on environmental issues related to submerging of trees under the dam water.
  • Recently its aim has been to enable the displaced poor people to get full rehabilitation facilities from the government.


Write how modem adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

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જવાબ :

  1. In modem times, rainwater harvesting is done in both rural and urban areas to recharge the groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater by constructing structures, e.g., dugwells, percolation pits, digging trenches around fields, etc.
  2. Rooftop rainwater harvesting structures are a common practice in many cities. Rain-water is collected using a PVC pipe and is filtered using sand and bricks.
  3. This water can be stored to meet the household needs through storage in tanks. This water is readily available for immediate usage.
  4. Excess water or a pipe can be connected to an underground reservoir which may recharge the ground-water through hand-pump or through abandoned dugwell. Later, this water can be drawn for varied uses.
  5. Storage tanks/reservoirs are built to store rainwater which is later used for irrigation purposes.


Explain how rooftop rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out. (2012)

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જવાબ : ‘Rooftop rainwater harvesting’ was commonly practiced to store drinking water, especially in semi-arid and arid regions like Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer in Rajasthan.

  1. In semi-arid and arid regions, all the houses had underground tankas or ‘tankas’ for storing drinking water built inside the house. They were the part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system.
  2. The tankas could be as large as a big room. One household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide.
  3. The tankas were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
  4. The tanks were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. The falling rain would travel down the pipes and get stored in the underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain would not be collected as it cleaned the roof and pipes. The rainwater from subsequent showers was collected.
  5. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanka to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.


Describe the traditional method of rainwater harvesting adopted in different parts of India.

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જવાબ : In ancient India, people developed wide-ranging techniques to harvest rainwater.

  1. In mountainous areas ‘Guls’ and ‘Kuls’ the diversion channels were built for agriculture.
  2. ‘Rooftop rainwater harvesting’ was commonly practised to store drinking water, especially in Rajasthan.
  3. Inundation channels for irrigation were developed in the flood plains of West Bengal.
  4. In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rainfed storage structures, eg. ‘Khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.
  5. In semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, all the houses had underground tanks or ‘tankas’ built inside the house for storing drinking water. They were a part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system.


Give an example of an inter-state water dispute.

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જવાબ : Krishna-Godavari dispute. The Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh Governments objected to the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra government for a multipurpose project as this results in reduction of downstream flow to Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh adversely affecting agriculture and industry in these States.


Name two multipurpose projects and the rivers on which they are respectively situated.

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જવાબ :

  1. Hirakud Project is situated on river Mahanadi in Orissa, and
  2. Bhakra Nangal Project is situated on river Sutlej.


What percentage of total electricity produced comes from hydro-electricity?
 

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જવાબ : 22 per cent of the total electricity produced is from hydro-electric power.


Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river valley projects.

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જવાબ : Advantages:

  1. They bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity and also provide water for irrigation.
  2. These projects generate electricity for industries and our homes.
  3. They help in controlling floods by regulating the water flow.
  4. These projects can be used for recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding.
Disadvantages:

  1. They have failed to achieve the purpose for which they were built.
  2. The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir.
  3. The big dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall.
  4. These floods cause extensive soil erosion in addition to loss of life and property.
  5. Sedimentation deprives the flood plains of silt, a natural fertiliser.
  6. It was observed that these projects induced earthquakes.
  7. Floods cause water-borne diseases and pests.
  8. Results in pollution also.
  9. These river valley projects lead to large scale displacement of people and loss livelihoods.


Explain any three problems faced by local communities due to the construction of large dams. (2017, 2013)

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જવાબ : Problems faced by local communities due to the construction of large dams:

  1. Dams have resulted in large-scale displacement of local communities.
  2. Local people have to give up their land and livelihood.
  3. Local people do not benefit from such projects as they are even deprived of the local resources on which they have little control.
  4. Many settlements and agricultural lands are submerged under water.


What are the social consequences of multipurpose projects?

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જવાબ :

  1. Local people, especially the landless people, did not gain from these projects.
  2. It led to displacement of people which deprived the people of their land and livelihood.
  3. It has increased the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.
  4. Dams created conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources.
  5. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multipurpose projects.


Multipurpose projects and dams have been the cause of many new social movements. Name two such social movements and write the underlying causes for these movements.

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જવાબ : Resistance to these projects came from social movements, e.g.,

  1. ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and
  2. ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’.
    Their major concerns were as follows:
    • Initially the environmental concerns were of utmost importance.
    • Dams have resulted in large-scale displacement of local communities.
  1. people have to give up their land and livelihood.
  2. people do not benefit from such projects as they are even deprived of the local sources on which they have little control.
  1. settlements and agricultural lands are submerged under water.
  1. of the displaced persons is now the prime concern of these movements.


‘Construction of dams on rivers has caused environmental degradation.’ Give reasons to support this statement. (2015)

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જવાબ : 1.    Damming of rivers affects their natural flow causing poor sediment flow.
2.    Excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
3.    Lack of sediments results in
•    rockier stream bed and
•    poorer habitat for the river’s aquatic life.
    

Dams also fragment rivers, making it difficult for acquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
 

The reservoirs submerge the existing vegetation and soil, leading to its decomposition over time.

Flood plains are deprived of silt and khadar, affecting the fertility levels of the soil.

Construction of dams also faces resistance because of large scale displacement of local communities.


Why are multipurpose river valley projects called ‘The Temples of Modern India’? Who first made this statement? (2014)

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જવાબ : Jawahar Lai Nehru proclaimed that multipurpose projects are ‘The Temples of Modern India’, because they were thought of as the vehicle that would lead the nation to development and progress. He believed that these projects with their integrated water resource management approach would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy.

Dams or multipurpose river valley projects have the following advantages:

  1. They bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity and also provide water for irrigation.
  2. These projects generate electricity for industries and our homes.
  3. They help in controlling floods by regulating the water flow.
  4. These projects can be used for recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding.


What is the main difference between traditional dams and modern dams?

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જવાબ : Traditionally dams were built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later to irrigate the agricultural fields.

Today, dams are referred to as multipurpose projects where many uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another. The main purposes served by these projects are irrigation, electricity generation, flood control, water supply for domestic and industrial use, fish breeding and tourism.


What is a dam? Describe the functioning of dams? On what basis are dams classified into different types?

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જવાબ : A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
A dam is the reservoir and not the whole structure.
Functioning:
Most dams have a section called spillway or weir over which or through which, water will flow intermittently or continuously.
Classification:
Dams are classified according to structure, intended purpose or height.

  • According to structure and materials used, they are classified as timber dams, embankment dams or masonry dams.
  • According to height, they are classified as large and major dams, low dams, medium height dams and high dams.


How was water conserved in ancient India? Give any four examples in support of your answer. (2012)

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જવાબ : Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times India has been constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams, reservoirs, embankments and canals for irrigation.

  1. For example, in the first century B.C., Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga.
  2. During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built.
  3. Sophisticated irrigation works have been found in Kalinga in Odisha, Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Bennur in Karnataka and Kolhapur in Maharashtra.
  4. Bhopal lake, built in the 11th century, was one of the largest artificial lakes of its time.
  5. In the 14th century, Iltutmish constructed a tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi for supplying water in Siri Fort area.


What were the different types of hydraulic structures constructed in Ancient India? Give examples.

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જવાબ : The different types of hydraulic structures were:

  • Dams built of stone rubble e.g., during Chandragupta Maurya’s time, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built.
  • Reservoirs or lakes like the Bhopal lake of the 11th century which was one of the largest artificial lakes of its time.
  • Embankments and canals for irrigation. Sophisticated irrigation works have been found in Kalinga (Orissa), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh) etc.
  • Many tanks were built to store rainwater e.g., the tank in Huaz Khas in Delhi was built in 14th century to supply water to Siri Fort area.


Write some measures adopted for conservation of water resources. (2015)

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જવાબ : Measures for water conservation:

  1. Do not overdraw the ground water, recharge the ground water by techniques like rainwater harvesting.
  2. Avoid wastage of water at all levels.
  3. Do not pollute the water.
  4. Increasing the water resources by tapping the rainwater in reservoirs, watershed development programmes, etc.
  5. Adopting water conserving techniques of irrigation, e.g., drip irrigation and sprinklers etc., especially in dry areas. Sufficient water percolation facilities should be increased to help in raising the level of the water table.


What is the need for conservation of water resources? (2015)

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જવાબ :

  1. Our water resources are limited and our requirements are increasing day by day. The water resources are unevenly distributed.
  2. Most of our resources especially in the cities and urban areas are polluted and unsuitable for drinking and other purposes.
  3. To safeguard ourselves from health hazards.
  4. We need to conserve water for the continuation of our livelihoods and to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystem. To ensure food security and for continuation of our livelihoods.
  5. For productive activities of the nation.
  6. To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystem.


There are No Content Availble For this Chapter

1

River of Sorrow

A

River Satluj

2

Bhakhra Nangal Dam

B

River Mahanadi

3

Hirakud Dam

C

Damodar River

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B

1

Bhavani Sagar dam

A

Karnataka

2

Tungabhadra Dam

B

Uttar Pradesh

3

Rihand Dam

C

Tamil Nadu

4

Maithon Dam

D

Jharkhand

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જવાબ :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

1

Environmental movement

A

Jawaharlal Nehru

2

percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans

B

Narmada Bachao Andolan

3

proclaimed dams as the temple of modern India

C

96.5%.

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-A

1

Sardar Sarovar Dam

A

Sutlej

2

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

B

Narmada

3

Hirakud dam

C

Krishna

4

Bhakra Nangal Dam

D

Mahanadi

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

Sardar Sarovar Dam

A

Punjab-Himachal Pradesh Border

2

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

B

Odisha

3

Hirakud dam

C

Telangana

4

Bhakra Nangal Dam

D

Gujarat

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4-A

1

Maithon Dam

A

Banas

2

Koyna Dam

B

Kaveri

3

Bisalpur Dam

C

Koyna

4

Mettur Dam

D

Barakar

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જવાબ :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

1

Krishnarajasagar Dam

A

Cheruthoni

2

Indira Sagar Dam

B

Kaveri

3

Cheruthoni Dam

C

Narmada

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-A

1

Krishnarajasagar Dam

A

Karnataka

2

Indira Sagar Dam

B

Kerala

3

Cheruthoni Dam

C

Madhya Pradesh

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જવાબ :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

Maithon Dam

A

Tamil Nadu

2

Koyna Dam

B

Jharkhand

3

Bisalpur Dam

C

Maharashtra

4

Mettur Dam

D

Rajasthan

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

Bhavani Sagar dam

A

Rihand

2

Tungabhadra Dam

B

Bhavani

3

Rihand Dam

C

Barakar

4

Maithon Dam

D

Tungabhadra

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જવાબ :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

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